Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Business Ethics and Rules Essay

By and by, I concur that Solomon’s moral basics are a decent good establishment for a business. â€Å"Business morals is the investigation of what comprises good and bad (or great and terrible) human direct in a business setting. † (p25) From the talk, we realize that morals matters in light of the fact that â€Å"how associations act have significant ramifications for how they satisfy their social and monetary roles† and â€Å"their accomplishment just as the achievement of their workers, clients, and so forth † Thus, maintaining a business morally is useful for business. Applying Solomon’s three C’s of business morals and the eight standards of intuition morals in business bode well. The three C’s of business morals incorporate consistence, commitments and results. The principal C is â€Å"the requirement for consistence with the guidelines, including the laws of the land†¦and such broad worries as decency. †(p36) As a maxim goes, â€Å"Nothing can be cultivated without standards or gauges. † Rules in business are proposed to state business structure or to control or impact the conduct of the business. Let’s take EU-Rent for instance. EU-Rent is a vehicle rental organization claimed by EU-Corporation. EU-Rent sets up rules about rentals, returns, adjusting and clients. For instance, â€Å"EU-Rent tracks clients, their rentals, and terrible encounters. This data is utilized to conclude whether to support a rental. † If EU-Rent doesn’t consent to these standards, it may not sort out well. The subsequent C is â€Å"the commitments business can make to society, through the qualities and nature of one’s items or services†¦and convenience of one’s exercises to the encompassing network. † (p36) For example, financial analysts customarily accept that organization’s essential objective is to boost benefits. Numerous effective associations are steadily mindful of the significant connection among benefits and commitments to society. Starbucks has seen its benefits ascend as it has expanded its interest in social issues. Those associations who are making benefits and don’t add to society may get analysis from the general population. As the article â€Å"The Sichuan Earthquake and the Changing Landscape of CSR in China†, which was composed by Ariel McGinnis, James Pellegrin, Yin Shum, Jason Teo, and Judy Wu (University of Pennsylvania), referenced, â€Å" In the days and weeks following the Sichuan quake, numerous worldwide corporations(MNCs) sought after a worldwide CSR (corporate social obligation) strategy in accordance with their global norm. While some multinationals vowed money, numerous others promised a mix of money, gear and administrations. Residential firms, apparently, out-gave multinationals†¦The famous observation was that worldwide firms’ alleviation commitments not exclusively didn't coordinate those of nearby Chinese organizations as far as scale or practicality, yet additionally were not proportionate with their quality in the Chinese market. Chinese customers immediately took advantage of this uniqueness by straightforwardly assaulting major MNCs, requiring a blacklist of their items †¦ The Chinese open before long gave these influenced MNCs the moniker of ‘international iron chickens. The term alludes to a fowl that never surrenders a solitary quill, and its use features the apparent parsimony of these global firms†¦Despite their extra donations,’ iron-rooster’ MNCs kept on confronting furious buyers all through China, bringing about extreme open backfire, includin g fights at a few McDonald’s and barricades at KFCs all through Sichuan territory and the remainder of China. † From this model, we can perceive how significant the commitments that associations should make to the general public are. The third C is â€Å"the result of business activity†¦including the notoriety of one’s own organization and industry†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (p36) Why the outcomes of business action are so significant? Let’s examine the accompanying model. Once, Sanlu was one of the most established and most well known brands of newborn child equation in China. It went into chapter 11 after the â€Å"Sanlu milk scandal†. In light of the media, â€Å"By November 2008 China detailed an expected 300,000 casualties, six newborn children biting the dust from kidney stones and other kidney harm, and a further 860 infants hospitalized. Since the Sanlu Group didn’t take care of the issue and review the items in time, it leaded to a loathsome occurrence. Without a doubt, what did associations do may influence their turn of events and even the prosperity of general society. Associations ought not aimlessly seek after for benefits just yet additionally be receptive to society. To get f ruitful, a business should be driven by solid moral qualities. On the off chance that a partnership neglects to receive moral qualities and can't be receptive to society, it will come up short, much the same as the Sanlu Group. Other than the three C’s of business morals, Solomon likewise expressed the eight guidelines of speculation morals in business, which are additionally acceptable good establishments for a business. The eight guidelines incorporate â€Å"consider different people’s prosperity, including the prosperity of nonparticipants; think as an individual from the business network and not as a separated individual; comply, however don't rely exclusively upon, the law; consider yourselfâ€and your companyâ€as part of society; comply with moral principles; think unbiasedly; pose the inquiry ‘What kind of individual would do something like this? what's more, regard the traditions of others, yet not to the detriment of your own morals. †(p40, 41) Based on the above proclamations, it is clear to see that they are for the most part about the idea of three C’s. As indicated by the content, thinking morally implies â€Å"thinking as far as consistence with the guid elines, certain just as unequivocal, thinking as far as the commitments one can make just as one’s own potential increases, thinking regarding staying away from hurtful results to others just as to oneself. (p40) For the situation of â€Å"Sanlu milk scandal†, one of the fundamental purposes for

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Promote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

Question: Talk about the Promote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health. Answer: Shakira's circumstance and wellbeing can be comprehended in setting of two social determinants of wellbeing. She is socially hindered, lives without guardians, and experiences extraordinary neediness and needs more to eat. Low quality and packed lodging is regularly the reason for rheumatic fever (He, et al., 2016). Living in remote region makes access to treatment troublesome. Extraordinary neediness kept her family from giving her everyday environments and nourishment that could improve her wellbeing. Penicillin oral or injectible, prophylaxis is educated for long haul treatment with respect to rheumatic fever. Intense rheumatic fever whenever left untreated can cause rheumatic coronary illness. In Australia's Northern Territory, it has been accounted for that 92% of the RHD cases happen among the Indigenous individuals. 150-380 for each 100,000 instances of ARF have been accounted for (Parnaby Carapetis, 2010). The ATSI individuals think that its simpler to impart through a technique for equal trade of thoughts. As an EN it is socially fitting to converse with patients in a proportional casual trade. The patients are then ready to feel increasingly great while accepting the treatment. Correspondingly, a wellbeing expert's proposals would be considered socially skilled if the strategy for offering guidance was non-meddling. For instance, it is sufficient to propose diet for a diabetics. Referencing the confusions that could emerge if the recommendations were not followed would be socially awkward (Durey Thompson, 2012). The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander act, 2005 has been enacted to encourage the improvement of independence among the Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders. The demonstration visualizes their advancement in the monetary, social and social fields and guarantees conveyance of administrations by the State and nearby governments (C2012C00258, 2005). The probability of ailment among the Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders inustralia is more than multiple times more prominent than the standard populace. They additionally have altogether lower futures than the white populace. The wellbeing disparity among them is because of various elements of colonization, prejudice and taken ages coercive expulsion of kids from their families. The effect of colonization was with the end goal that the indigenous individuals' property was detracted from them, their way of life, language and social structure were influenced and caused them serious mental misery. Their wellbeing was influenced and right up 'til the present time they bashful away fromseeking treatment in the standard human services framework. Arrangement of socially safe consideration is conceivable if the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people group is associated with taking choices from the phase of strategy confining. With the goal that socially proper consideration can be conveyed to a populace that has sufferedfrom wellbeing disparities for quite a while. The structure, administration conveyance and association in approach execution by network individuals can guarantee that all necessities of the individuals are met. Wellbeing results are relied upon to be acceptable when individuals from the network become a piece of administration arrangement since they comprehend the language and culture of their own kin. Issues of bigotry and separation are tended to and social qualities stay unblemished while conveying human services (/wellbeing plan.pdf, 2013). Powerful correspondence while talking with Shakira and her family would be conceivable when attempting to comprehend the troubles looked by her more distant family. The fundamental prerequisite of her treatment is ordinary anti-toxin infusions like clockwork. Shakira's family will be acquainted with an ATSI specialist organization who can successfully convey the significance of the infusions. The importnce of the echocardiography tests can be imparted along these lines. Another earnest prerequisite is that Shakira go to class so her day starts with nutritious feast that her family can't give. Rehashed updates by the ATSI specialist organization will be given to guarantee her clinical needs are met. Setting aside some effort to comprehend her family during the correspondence will improve correspondence (/speaking with-indigenous-individuals 124). The showcase of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander banners, craftsmanship, social images and socially adjusted substance makes a domain that is all the more welcoming for them. At the point when they get to social insurance in such a domain they feel, that their way of life is being regarded and they feel urged to visit such focuses. The historical backdrop of colonization, prejudice and the persuasive expulsion of kids from their families has imparted a dread and form towards the non-indegenous individuals of Australia. They are dreaded and the kept misconception of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander individuals' perspective and their associations with family, land and their way of life is looked downward on. The mentality of racial domination when dealingwith the instructively and formatively denied Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander individuals is apparent in the manner they are dealt with even today. Their failure to get to human services because of social determinan ts of wellbeing has put them at a more noteworthy weakness. Before they get to a wellbeing administration, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander individuals may fear whether they will be comprehended they may likewise fear segregation because of prejudice. A socially hazardous practice could misconstrue their language treat them as being from a mediocre race and society. References /speaking with-indigenous-individuals 124. (n.d.). Recovered from see/speaking with-indigenous-individuals 124 /wellbeing plan.pdf. (2013, July). Recovered from$File/wellbeing plan.pdf C2012C00258. (2005). Recovered from Durey, A., Thompson, S. (2012). Diminishing the wellbeing variations of Indigenous Australians: time to change center. BMC Health Services Research, 12:151. He, V., Condon, J., Ralph, A., Zhao, Y., Roberts, K., de Dassel, J., . . . Carapetis, J. (2016). Long haul Outcomes From Acute Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease. Course, 134(3): 222232. Parnaby, M., Carapetis, J. (2010). Rheumatic fever in indigenous Australian kids. Diary of Pediatrics and Child Health, 46(9):527-33.

Sunday, August 16, 2020

How to Fail Part 2

How to Fail Part 2 (Read part 1!) I will start with a disclaimerthere are definitely things that can and will change at MIT. In fact, that’s what I love about the culturewhen there’s something wrong, people are invited to fix it. That includes both robots and mental health. There’s been a lot of debate on campus as of late concerning how to best achieve a safe, caring, healthy environment while still maintaining our academic rigor. One thing I think definitely helps is just talking about it more. When a previous bloggerAnna H. ‘14posted this blog post to the admitted 2018s Facebook page about Imposter Syndrome, I think everyone responded with relief and positivity. I know I did. That’s part of why I decided to write this two-part post. That being said, I’ll assume for now that academics at MIT won’t changeindeed, it’s possible they won’t have to so long as the way we think about them changesfor the sake of argument. Though I left my last post on a happy note, in actuality, the relief of spring break only lasted so long. The calm before the storm you might say. My second round of midterms was not much better and I began to get really concerned. My fiery analytical vigor also only lasted so long. I felt helpless. I didn’t understand. I thought I was doing everything I needed to, and yet my exams, tauntingly, did not reflect that. I worked twice as hard this semester and did half as well. It was about this time that I scheduled some meetings with my professorsa move I’m pretty glad I took! Asking for help is something I learned to do well in high school. I talked to TAs and LAs, and received many different bits of advice. Probably most striking was when I walked into Professor Staffilani’s office, for 18.03 (Differential Equations). I was doing so badly, I was thinking about dropping her class. She asked me the scores I received on our recent exams and psets, and I told her. Then she said, “Oh you’re doing fine! I would not recommend dropping this classthose scores on psets are about what we look for, and your exams seem all right.” “Butbut I failed the last exam” O__o “Yes, but only by one point!” ^__^ Never in my life has a teacher told me I’m fine with a C in their class. Back in high school, I was on the debate team, and I did Lincoln Douglas debate. Research was really funbut I was a terrible debater. Not once did I ever make it to finals rounds. I never went undefeated (we only have three matches). I didn’t like debating as much as researching. Some of the debaters could be really mean, too, and were very haughty and pretentious, and I did not like them. I failed so badly, even my parents asked me why I continued, instead of doing speech events, which I was actually much better at. I did this for four years, after all. Well, I improved in public speaking and arguing a lot. It was ridiculous. In sixth and seventh grade, I had been extremely timid. I couldn’t even speak in front of a class of second graders. I was very shy. As I said, I was not confrontationalI’m still not, but I can now stand my ground on what I believe in, as opposed to “agreeing to disagree” all the time, and I no longer change my opinions based on whether someone was able to win an argument with me or not. Now, none of my friends believe me when I tell them I used to be terrible at public speaking. I knew how much I was improving, and I knew that this improvement was worth much, much more than any speech ribbon I could have gotten. I was tempered, like iron, through the environment of debate. I had failed so muchalmost exclusively failed, in factthat I am not even a little bit scared of public speaking. Speaking and presenting is totally different from debating, because when you’re debating you expect people to attack and slash to bits your argument in a way no polite or respectable person in real life actually would. You could ask me to present to Obama and I would not stutter. I realized how much I’d improved when I went to MOSTEC, an MIT summer program I attended my junior year. All our project groups had to present, and I was the very last person to speak. I concluded the neuroscience group’s presentation, and afterward my classmates and instructors told me I should give TED talks. I had come so far from where I once had been. I had so much more confidence, which I had gained from failing over and over again. Not from succeeding. What’s more is that some of the very same people I had debated actually were not very good at public speaking: they lacked the finesse of reaching an audience emotionally as well as factually, which I had been able to practice from a couple years also doing oral interpretation (a speech event, basically acting without props or costumes). So, debate just wasn’t quite the right environment for me to perform in, but it was the perfect environment for me to train in. I think that, slowly, I’m starting to see MIT like I saw debate. I greatly enjoy most of the work I do at MIT, but I definitely do a lot of failing. Perhaps the real problem is that most of us don’t realize our frame of reference. We are studying at one of the most intense engineering institutions in literally the world. We all have different specialties, different strengths and weaknesses. It’s fine that the one kid has a 100% in math or whateverI know that I dislike math and won’t be pursuing that as a major anyway, so why should I be so worried? As long as I pass the class, I’ll be okay. More importantly, as long as I actually learn something, I’ll be okay. A huge problem at MIT is also selective thinking, or failing to view good things and only viewing the bad. I have a pretty good biology background from high school, but I didn’t think my 7.013 (Human Biology) grades were that great until I realized some people were struggling as much in that class as I was in math. I had actually never noticed. I was so obsessed on how badly I was doing that I forgot to appreciate the things that were going wellor at least the things that were going okay. MIT, like debate, is a place that tempers people, again and again, until we are forged into something stronger and different. Michael C. ‘16 made this post about how well he’d been prepared for “the real world” (*insert choir sounds here*); I’m sure many other alums share similar sentiments. Maybe the problem is not how much we have to do, but how we think about it. Yes, we work really, really, really hard. It’s very difficult to really believe all this when it’s 3AM, or even if it’s 3PM and you just failed a test for which you studied for three days. Furthermore, we all have different backgrounds, and it’s very easy to simply see others as geniuses and prodigies when you don’t know how much they, too, have failed in the past, or even how much they fail at MIT and just don’t talk about it. In debate after researching for weeks and giving up my entire Saturday to get whooped in rounds by some pretentious kid in a suit, I didn’t want to ever do it again. But you know what? By the next tournament, I was ready and waiting. It is okay to feel upset; I certainly don’t think it’s healthy to suppress that feeling. What’s important is moving on from that, and breathing. Tempering is not a simple process. It involves fire and pressure and heat. But you can begin with just mud, and in the end there is porcelain. In the beginning there is iron, and in the end there is steel.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Binomial Table for n7, n8 and n9

A binomial random variable provides an important example of a discrete random variable.   The binomial distribution, which describes the probability for each value of our random variable, can be determined completely by the two parameters: n   and p.   Here n is the number of independent trials and p is the constant probability of success in each trial.   The tables below provide binomial probabilities for n 7,8 and 9.   The probabilities in each are rounded to three decimal places. Should a   binomial distribution be used?.  Ã‚   Before jumping in to use this table, we need to check that the following conditions are met: We have a finite number of observations or trials.The outcome of each trial can be classified as either a success or a failure.The probability of success remains constant.The observations are independent of one another. When these four conditions are met, the binomial distribution will give the probability of r successes in an experiment with a total of n independent trials, each having probability of success p.  Ã‚   The probabilities in the table are calculated by the formula C(n, r)pr(1 - p)n - r where C(n, r) is the formula for combinations.   There are separate tables for each value of n.   Each entry in the table is organized by the values of p and of r.   Other Tables For other binomial distribution tables we have n 2 to 6, n 10 to 11. When the values of np  and n(1 - p) are both greater than or equal to 10, we can use the normal approximation to the binomial distribution.   This gives us a good approximation of our probabilities and does not require the calculation of binomial coefficients.   This provides a great advantage because these binomial calculations can be quite involved. Example Genetics has many connections to probability.   We will look at one to illustrate the use of the binomial distribution.   Suppose we know that probability of an offspring inheriting two copies of a recessive gene (and hence possessing the recessive trait we are studying) is 1/4.   Furthermore, we want to calculate the probability that a certain number of children in an eight-member family possesses this trait.   Let X be the number of children with this trait.   We look at the table for n 8 and the column with p 0.25, and see the following: .100.267.311. This means for our example that P(X 0) 10.0%, which is the probability that none of the children has the recessive trait.P(X 1) 26.7%, which is the probability that one of the children has the recessive trait.P(X 2) 31.1%, which is the probability that two of the children have the recessive trait.P(X 3) 20.8%, which is the probability that three of the children have the recessive trait.P(X 4) 8.7%, which is the probability that four of the children have the recessive trait.P(X 5) 2.3%, which is the probability that five of the children have the recessive trait.P(X 6) 0.4%, which is the probability that six of the children have the recessive trait. Tables for n 7 to n 9 n 7 p .01 .05 .10 .15 .20 .25 .30 .35 .40 .45 .50 .55 .60 .65 .70 .75 .80 .85 .90 .95 r 0 .932 .698 .478 .321 .210 .133 .082 .049 .028 .015 .008 .004 .002 .001 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 1 .066 .257 .372 .396 .367 .311 .247 .185 .131 .087 .055 .032 .017 .008 .004 .001 .000 .000 .000 .000 2 .002 .041 .124 .210 .275 .311 .318 .299 .261 .214 .164 .117 .077 .047 .025 .012 .004 .001 .000 .000 3 .000 .004 .023 .062 .115 .173 .227 .268 .290 .292 .273 .239 .194 .144 .097 .058 .029 .011 .003 .000 4 .000 .000 .003 .011 .029 .058 .097 .144 .194 .239 .273 .292 .290 ;268 .227 .173 .115 .062 .023 .004 5 .000 .000 .000 .001 .004 .012 .025 .047 .077 .117 .164 .214 .261 .299 .318 .311 .275 .210 .124 .041 6 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .004 .008 .017 .032 .055 .087 .131 .185 .247 .311 .367 .396 .372 .257 7 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .002 .004 .008 .015 .028 .049 .082 .133 .210 .321 .478 .698 n 8 p .01 .05 .10 .15 .20 .25 .30 .35 .40 .45 .50 .55 .60 .65 .70 .75 .80 .85 .90 .95 r 0 .923 .663 .430 .272 .168 .100 .058 .032 .017 .008 .004 .002 .001 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 1 .075 .279 .383 .385 .336 .267 .198 .137 .090 .055 .031 .016 .008 .003 .001 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 2 .003 .051 .149 .238 .294 .311 .296 .259 .209 .157 .109 .070 .041 .022 .010 .004 .001 .000 .000 .000 3 .000 .005 .033 .084 .147 .208 .254 .279 .279 .257 .219 .172 .124 .081 .047 .023 .009 .003 .000 .000 4 .000 .000 .005 :018 .046 .087 .136 .188 .232 .263 .273 .263 .232 .188 .136 .087 .046 .018 .005 .000 5 .000 .000 .000 .003 .009 .023 .047 .081 .124 .172 .219 .257 .279 .279 .254 .208 .147 .084 .033 .005 6 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .004 .010 .022 .041 .070 .109 .157 .209 .259 .296 .311 .294 .238 .149 .051 7 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .003 .008 .016 .031 .055 .090 .137 .198 .267 .336 .385 .383 .279 8 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 000 .000 .000 .001 .002 .004 .008 .017 .032 .058 .100 .168 .272 .430 .663 n 9 r p .01 .05 .10 .15 .20 .25 .30 .35 .40 .45 .50 .55 .60 .65 .70 .75 .80 .85 .90 .95 0 .914 .630 .387 .232 .134 .075 .040 .021 .010 .005 .002 .001 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 1 .083 .299 .387 .368 .302 .225 .156 .100 .060 .034 .018 .008 .004 .001 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 2 .003 .063 .172 .260 .302 .300 .267 .216 .161 .111 .070 .041 .021 .010 .004 .001 .000 .000 .000 .000 3 .000 .008 .045 .107 .176 .234 .267 .272 .251 .212 .164 .116 .074 .042 .021 .009 .003 .001 .000 .000 4 .000 .001 .007 .028 .066 .117 .172 .219 .251 .260 .246 .213 .167 .118 .074 .039 .017 .005 .001 .000 5 .000 .000 .001 .005 .017 .039 .074 .118 .167 .213 .246 .260 .251 .219 .172 .117 .066 .028 .007 .001 6 .000 .000 .000 .001 .003 .009 .021 .042 .074 .116 .164 .212 .251 .272 .267 .234 .176 .107 .045 .008 7 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .004 .010 .021 .041 .070 .111 .161 .216 .267 .300 .302 .260 .172 .063 8 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .004 .008 .018 .034 .060 .100 .156 .225 .302 .368 .387 .299 9 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .002 .005 .010 .021 .040 .075 .134 .232 .387 .630

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Lorraine Hansberrys A Raisin In The Sun - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1408 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/04/02 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: A Raisin in the Sun Essay Did you like this example? Money is like a double ended sword, as it makes life easier on one hand while at the same time most of the problems in many families all revolve around money. Raisin in the sun play was written by Hansberry which the center of all the issues they are facing hence the central motif in the story. The Younger family made up of five is living in a house fit for three as they try to gain middle-class acceptance in the community as they are a lower-class black family. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Lorraine Hansberrys A Raisin In The Sun" essay for you Create order A $10,000 check is to arrive through the mail as insurance check Big Walter worked hard to attain and each family member has different opinions on how the check should be spent. Lena, Ruth, and Beneatha imagine money as a path towards their road out of poverty, but Walter sees money as the only way out of their current life to a better one. He has big dreams and fantasies of how the funds will heighten his social standing as well as acquire items which he currently cant afford due to his low paying job as a chauffeur. In the begging of the play Walter hurriedly rushes in and asks Did it come? To which his mother replies Cant you give people a Christian greeting before you start asking about money? This clearly shows that Walter does not care about anything else apart from the check they are about to receive. In act 1 scene two Lena argues with Walter whether money has become life this day as there used to be a time when people did consider freedom as life. Walter gets back to her saying that all along it has always been about money its just that people did not know about it. Walter tries to show the reader that money is the center of everything, having it one can be able to attain any social class they desire. However, this is not true as money is not always a guarantee happiness and success in life. There are many other things which money can never be able to buy them. Lena has always wanted a bigger house with a backyard and with the arrival of the check comes the chance for her to get her famil y a better house. This is seen as a way of climbing up the social class in the society. Even though Walter is not happy about the decision of buying the house let alone the neighborhood they will have to have into is a white only. He accuses his mother of killing his dream of opening a liquor store yet she is the one talking about dreaming big. However, Lena always has her son in mind and is willing to give him a chance as she hands him the remaining amount for him to pay Beneathas tuition fees and save the rest. Having big dreams and plans is always a way of life but when the limits of how big the goals should be are exceeded then a problem may arise within an individual especially if not given a chance to achieve those dreams. Lena is well aware of this as she advises her son that it is not worth holding onto anything be it money or ideas if in the end, it is going to destroy you. Chasing after money alone will make one lose out on many other essential aspects of life. With the hopes of opening a liquor store drowning after Bobo tells Walter that their alleged friend has swindled them, and the money is no more he angrily says, Man, must trust you Man, I put my life in your hands man. And with that, he is bac k to having only dreams only about a better future. Money has become an idol which everyone is worshiping or chasing after including children. Travis asks for 50 cents from Ruth before he heads to school which he is denied at first but later Walter hands him a one dollar bill. Children have also become obsessed with money in the society, and it is becoming a norm to pay them off with every little thing they do or help around in the homestead. This eventually leads to them growing with the belief that money is everything hence will always chase after it. All the money is gone and Walter being frustrated, Mama still says that there is something left to love about him and asks if they have cried for the Walter for what he must be going through and the experience he has passed through. Lena knows that money is not everything provided that the family is healthy and happy everything is okay. Karl Lindner is sent to the Youngers to acquire the house they had previously bought in a white neighborhood at a price even higher than the original price tag as the residents of Clybourne dont have any relationship with the black family in order to move out because they have worked hard and will do anything to protect their dreams. However, Lana is against the idea of selling the house as she tells her Walter, Son I come from five generations of people who was slaves and sharecroppers but aint nobody in my family never let nobody pay them no money that was a way of telling us we werent fit to walk the earth. We aint never been that poor. We aint never been that dead inside. The white neighborhood believes that with money they can acquire anything even get the Youngers to sell their house simply because they do not want them living amongst them even if it means paying a higher price to buy the house. Despite all, in the end, a family is what comes first. Lena knows that it is the family is superior to money that is why she does not get mad when Walter misuses his entire fathers life work in a day by getting conned. Ruth feels the same way, and all she cares about is her family is happy. Willy who was supposed to be a friend to both Walter and Bobo decides to walk away with all their money in the name of going to get a license but never returns. Their friendship ceases to exist all for money. Many strong friendships and relationships come to an end with the cause being money. Everybody believes that money is everything and they can even sacrifice their friends dreams to get it. Walter is all about being great and climbing the social class in the society. He puts his dreams ahead of Beneathas dream of attending medical school and ends up losing all the money. She does not take this well in the beginning as she says; Did you dream of yachts on Lake Michigan, Brother? Did you see yourself on that Great Day sitting down at the Conference Table, surrounded by all the mighty bald men in America? All halted, waiting, breathless, waiting for your pronouncements on the industry? Waiting for you Chairman of the Board, I look at you, and I see the final triumph of stupidity in the world! Hansberry Central motif in the play is money as the whole plot revolves around the $10,000 check the Youngers receive after their father passed away. Money easily tears families apart if every member is always chasing it as conflicts are bound to happen. It is the root of evil in the society today as all bad things happening are mainly due to peoples thirst for money. Many innocent individuals have fallen victims even some end up dead if they try to stop someone from stealing or harming others for money. Immorality is on the rise and the number of youth engaging in prostitution and other immoral activities such as stealing for money has risen in the past the reason being everybody wants to get rich but no one is willing to work hard for it hence looks for an alternative method to getting it and this tends to be activities going against what is morally right. Conclusively, the author clearly shows that Walter does not care about anything else apart from the check they are about to receive. In addition, Money easily tears families apart if every member is always chasing it as conflicts are bound to happen. It is the root of evil in the society today as all bad things happening are mainly due to peoples thirst for money.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Pharmaceutical Marketing Free Essays

Pharmaceutical Marketing Merck â€Å"Merck has gone beyond developing and selling prescription pharmaceuticals. It formed joint ventures in 1989 with Johnson Johnson to sell over the-counter pharmaceuticals; in 1991 with DuPont to expand basic research, and in 2000 with Scherigng-Plough to develop and market new prescriptions medicines. In 1997, Merck and Rhone-Poulenc S. We will write a custom essay sample on Pharmaceutical Marketing or any similar topic only for you Order Now A. (now Sanofi-Aventis S. A. ) combined animal health and poultry genetics business to form Merial Limited, a fully integrated animal health company. Finally, Merck purchased Medco, a mail –order pharmaceutical distributor, in 2003, and Sirna Therapeutics in 2006† (Kotler Keller, 2012, p. 43-44). â€Å"For branding strategies to be successful and brand value to be created, consumers must be convinced there are meaningful differences among brands in the product or service category. Brand differences often related to attributes or benefits of the product itself . . Merck has lead (its) product categories for decades, due in part to continual innovation† (Kotler Keller, 2012, p. 243). Merck has donated $100 million or more to charities in a year (Kotler Keller, 2012, p. 632). Mission Statements Ex. Japan Both pharmaceutical and biotech companies are starting to make partnership a core competency (Kotler Keller, 2012, p. 52). Intro: Michael Dawson, author of â€Å"The Consumer Trap,† states that the business of marketing, a trillion-dollar –a-year industry, is a social, economical, environmental, and unfriendly cost on Americans today as it â€Å"continues to soak up economic and environmental resources and dominate the personal lives of citizens† (Dawson, 2005, p. ). Dawson argues that corporate America is fueled by a continuous marketing race that manipulates people’s perceptions and actions of goods into thinking the economy is out to serve one’s pleasures and happiness, when in all reality, is only out to serve the demand of business today (Dawson, 2005, p. 1). â€Å"It is critical that the U. S. government recognizes that intelligently focused nutrition-related efforts are important in helping lead Americans of all ages to lead healthier lifestyles. Marketing Nutrition shows how simple solutions can save lives. â€Å"–Congressman Timothy V. Johnson, United States House of Representatives (Wansink, 2007, p. 1). There are enormous economic dividends for health care providers, public health institutions, and commercial food companies if we are successful in doing this. â€Å"–Dr. David Mela, Expertise Group Leader, Unilever Health Institute(Wansink, 2007, p. 1). Marketing = A mechanism to help pharmacy develop, communicate, and sell future pharmaceutical services to consumers (Grauer, 1981, p. ). Pharmaceutical marketing is an â€Å"element of an information continuum, where research concepts are transformed into practical therapeutic tools and where information is progressively layered and made more useful to the health care system† (Levy, 1994, p. 1). Provides an informed choice of carefully characterized agents (Levy, 1994, p. 1). marketing assists physicians in matching drug therapy to individual patient needs (Levy, 1994, p. 1). Pharmaceutical marketing is presently the most organized and comprehensive information system for updating physicians about the availability, safety, efficacy, hazards, and techniques of using medicines (Levy, 1994, p. 1). pharmaceutical marketing strategies can negatively affect both- the end consumers or the patients and the health care profession (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). Also, the advertising strategies included in the marketing plan of any pharmaceutical company is not ‘direct to consumer’ (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. ). Any pharmaceutical marketing strategy targets the health care professionals or the Doctors who in turn prescribe the drugs to the patients (end consumers) liable to pay for the products (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). However, a few countries (till date two countries- New Zealand and United States) allow Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTC advertising) for pharmaceutical products (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). Pharmaceutical Market Trends 2010. Pharmaceutical Drug Manufacturer Resources. Retrieved from: http://www. pharmaceutical-drug-manufacturers. com/articles/pharmaceutical-market-trends-2010. html The global pharmaceutical is forecasted to make a significant growth of about 4 – 6%, exceeding $975 billion, with global pharmaceutical market sales expecting to grow at a 4 – 7% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) through 2013, based upon global macroeconomy as well the â€Å"changing combination of innovative and mature products apart from the rising influence of healthcare access and funding on market demand† (Pharmaceutical Market Trends 2010, p. ). pharmaceutical sales are growing at a fast rate in India, China, Malaysia, South Korea and Indonesia due to the rising disposable income, several health insurance schemes (that ensures the sales of branded drugs), and intense competition among top pharmaceutical companies in the region (that has boosted the availability of low cost drugs). India – 3rd Largest Producer of Pharmaceuticals Across the World- is already a US$ 8. 2 Billion pharmaceutical market. The Indian pharmaceutical industry is further expected to grow by 10% in the year 2010. (Pharmaceutical Market Trends 2010, p. 1). The development of infrastructure and rapidly changing regulations in the Middle East are being seen as the cause of its growth. Presently South Africa, Saudi Arabia and Israel dominate the region’s pharmaceutical industry due to their better infrastructure and regulatory environment. However, The Middle East pharma market depends on imported pharmaceutical drugs and therapeutics. The governments of countries in this region are taking measures to raise their domestic production through heavy investments in the pharmaceutical industry (Pharmaceutical Market Trends 2010, p. 1). Pharmaceutical Drugs Trends of fastest expected growth consist of anti-Diabetic Drugs and those for cardiovascular diseases, due to the changes in demographics and lifestyle with anti-hypertensives drugs will dominate the global cardiovascular market with a market share of nearly 50% (Pharmaceutical Market Trends 2010, p. 1). Strategy: The pharmaceutical companies traditionally adopt four major marketing strategies for promoting their products: Giving drugs as free samples to doctors/ Gifts that hold the company logo or details of one or multiple drugs, providing details of their products through journal articles or opinion leaders; and Sponsoring continuing medical education (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). Pharmaceutical representatives, also popularly known as medical representatives, are the major pharma marketing strategy for marketing drugs directly to the physicians. Typically, the expense of this sales force of any pharmaceutical company comprises anything ranging from 15-20% of annual product revenues (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). â€Å"Marketing Nutrition offers a ‘win-win’ proposition for all concerned. Insightful companies, health professionals, and policy makers can lead the way . . . in helping people eat better and enjoy food more. â€Å"–Dr. James O. Hill, Director of Human Nutrition, University of Colorado Medical School (Wansink, 2007, p. ). Take advantage of future growth opportunities. These growth opportunities will be realized from unmet health-care needs and changing consumer life style trends and values (Grauer, 1981, p. 1). Dispensing and drug-knowledge-distribution pharmaceutical services are reviewed by a product life cycle analysis of sales profits versus time (Grauer, 1981, p. 1). A marketing mix for new pharmaceutical services is developed consisting of service, price, distribution, and promotion strategies. Marketing can encompass those key elements necessary to meet the organizational goals of pharmacy and provide a systematic, disciplined approach for presenting a new service to consumers (Grauer, 1981, p. 1). The costs of pharmaceutical marketing are substantial, but they are typical of high-technology industries that must communicate important and complex information to sophisticated users. These costs are offset by savings resulting from proper use of medicines and from lower drug costs owing to price competition (Levy, 1994, p. 1). oint to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and find comfort in the fact that this agency is tasked with regulating drug advertising. â€Å"only† 8% of advertisements are in violation of regulations. at least one of the 11 advertisements in the April issue of the ARCHIVES is likely to be misleading and, thus, provide potentially harmful information. In fact, the FDA, according to David A. Kessler, MD, commissioner, spends most of its time deve loping the package insert and not, as asserted by Levy, preapproving advertising. According to Kessler, â€Å"Except under very special circumstances, the agency does not eview or approve advertising and promotional materials before their dissemination by a drug firm† Furthermore, Kessler states that an â€Å"†¦ enormous potential exists for misleading adver ¬ tisements to reach the physician and influence prescribing decisions. † (Shaughnessy, Slawson, ; Bennett, 1994, p. 1). Gifts: Giving drugs as free samples to doctors/ Gifts that hold the company logo or details of one or multiple drugs, A study was done in 1995 to gauge the outcome of a patient’s perception of pharmacy marketing regarding physician’s accepting gifts from the pharmaceutical industry. The objective of this study was to â€Å"examine patient perceptions of professional appropriateness and the potential impact on health care of physician acceptance of gifts from the pharmaceutical industry,† via a random telephone suvey of 649 adjults living in the state of Kentucky. Through the random sampling, the outcome of the survey was that Patient awareness of officeuse gifts (eg, pens, notepads) and personal gifts to physicians from the pharmaceutical industry, patient exposure to office-use gifts, and attitudes toward physician acceptance of both office-use and personal gifts. Mainous, Hueston, ; Rich, 1995, p. 1). Eightytwo percent of the respondents were aware that physicians received office-use gifts, while 32% were aware that physicians received personal gifts. Seventy-five percent reported receiving free samples of medication from their physicians. Compared with office-use gifts, more respondents believed that personal gifts to physicians have a negative effect on both health care cost (42% vs 26%) and quality (23% vs 13%). After controlling for demographic variables, as well as awareness and exposure to physician gifts, individuals with at least a high school education were 2. times as likely to believe that personal gifts have a negative effect on the cost of health care and 2. 3 times as likely to believe that personal gifts would have a negative effect on the quality of health care. (Mainous, Hueston, ; Rich, 1995, p. 1). Conclusions These results suggest that the public is generally uninformed about personal gifts from pharmaceutical companies to physicians. If public perception regarding the objectivity of the medical profession is to serve as a guide, these findings suggest a reevaluation may be in order for guidelines regarding physician acceptance of gifts from the harmaceutical industry (Mainous, Hueston, ; Rich, 1995, p. 1). The World Health Organization, the American Medical Association, the American College of Physicians, and the Pharmaceuticals Manufacturers’ Association have also published guidelines on perks to physicians from the drug industry. The bottom line is that all these guidelines are voluntary, and physicians have continued to vote â€Å"with their feet. † (Shaughnessy, Slawson, Bennett, 1994, p. 1). controversial 1962 FDA amendments. Just before 1962, congress studied and concluded that because of patent protection, heavy promotion by the drug companies, consumer ignorance, and minimal incentives for physicians to be concerned with cost, drugs of dubious quality and unnecessarily high expense were being prescribed by physicians, criticisms that sound remarkably familiar even today. Up to that point, the FDA had only required â€Å"proof of safety,† which dated back to the origins of the modern drug era and the 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (Shaughnessy, Slawson, Bennett, 1994, p. 1). Discussions about the influence of pharmaceutical promotion on physicians often focus on gifts and payments of relatively large economic value. This focus is also evident in ethics guidelines addressing pharmaceutical promotion among many professional medical societies. 1 The underlying assumption is that smaller gifts are unlikely to exert influence on prescribing decisions. (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, Kahn, 2009, p. 1). In contrast, a substantial body of marketing and psychology literature suggests that even trivial items can exert influence irrespective of economic value. For example, adding a small gift such as personalized mailing labels to a solicitation for donations has been shown to significantly increase contributions. 2 In pharmaceutical promotion, small gifts are often tethered to branding efforts, as items such as pens and coffee mugs display logos. Aside from the intrinsic value of promotional items, branded materials strengthen brand awareness and build brand equity through a variety of largely unconscious but powerful mechanisms. 3 Nonverbal information about the brand, such as symbols or logos, is often more influential than verbal cues. Stronger brands have a memory encoding and storage advantage over unknown brands,5 which facilitates the formation of strong positive associations with the brand. Strong branded products are more often in a â€Å"top-of-mind† set of alternatives for consumers to consider. 6 Strong brand awareness provides a justifiable reason for choosing a particular brand. 7-8 This research suggests that small b randed promotional items should increase favorable attitudes for the brand being promoted. We are unaware of studies that test these effects in a clinical context with health professionals, but many physicians, because they are medical experts, believe they are not susceptible to these influences. 5, 9-10 In one survey, just 8% of physicians believed they were susceptible to influence by marketing items such as branded pens, whereas 31% of patients felt these items could influence physicians. 9 The guidelines of the American Medical Association regarding gifts to physicians from industry reflect this belief of lack of susceptibility by permitting â€Å"gifts of minimal value. â€Å"1 (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, Kahn, 2009, p. ). The study used a randomized experimental design. Participants were third- and fourth-year medical students at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (Penn) and the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine (Miami). We selected these institutions because of their differing policies regarding interactions between trainees and pharmace utical company representatives. The University of Pennsylvania has restrictive policies in place that prohibit most gifts, meals, and samples while Miami continues to permit such marketing practices. (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, Kahn, 2009, p. 1). 007-2008. Study participants were assigned to a control or primed condition based on their day of enrollment. Participants assigned to the â€Å"primed† condition were exposed to Lipitor (atorvastatin) branded promotional items immediately prior to completing a computer-based study instrument. These exposures included Lipitor logos on a clipboard (used when signing in to the study room) and notepaper (used to provide participants with their study identification number). Participants assigned to the control condition completed the same procedures but with a plain (nonbranded) clipboard and notepaper. Randomization was conducted by day in order to avoid contamination of conditions. (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, Kahn, 2009, p. 1). Participants were told they were enrolling in a study about clinical decision making under varying conditions (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, Kahn, 2009, p. 1). Our study was designed to measure the influence of exposure to branded promotional items on relative attitudes toward 2 lipid-lowering statins. We examined differences in attitudes toward Lipitor and Zocor (simvastatin) in our exposed (Lipitor promotional items) and control groups. Lipitor is among the most promoted brand-name statins in the United States while simvastatin is available generically and considered to be nearly equally effective. The study outcomes included measures of implicit and self-reported (ie, explicit) attitudes. (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, Kahn, 2009, p. 1). Implicit attitudes were evaluated with the Implicit Association Test,11-15 a widely used tool in marketing and psychology research that is thought to be resistant to social desirability bias among research participants. Initial applications of the IAT, for example, demonstrated the persistence of racial and gender stereotypes and prejudices, even in the face of strong conscious beliefs that such attitudes do not exist and strong social norms that dictate they should not exist. 16-17 Results from the IAT are a better predictor of intergroup discrimination (eg, biased behavior against people of other races/ethnicities, gender, and sexual orientation based on existing attitudes and stereotypes) compared with ostensibly similar self-report measures. 13 In recent years, the use of the IAT has been expanded to research focused on branding and marketing. 8-19 Further details regarding application and validity of the IAT have been published elsewhere13-15; a demonstration can be found at the Project Implicit Web site (https://implicit. harvard. edu/implicit). (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, Kahn, 2009, p. 1). Explicit attitudes were assessed by self-report. Following the IAT, participants were asked to compare L ipitor and Zocor in 5 dimensions (superiority, preference, efficacy, safety, and convenience) a follow-up anonymous Internet-based survey that assessed their attitudes toward pharmaceutical marketing. The purpose was to measure differences in attitudes among students at the 2 schools given the differing institutional policies as a possible explanatory factor(Grande, Frosch, Perkins, Kahn, 200 Then there is the pharmaceutical industry’s holy grail of marketing — the relationship between their sales representatives and medical doctors. To maintain this relationship, often called â€Å"detailing,† pharmaceutical companies spend a whopping $8,290 per doctor. The average family doctor receives 28 visits each week from drug reps, who provide free samples, explain new findings from company-sponsored drug trials, and demonstrate the latest innovation in their company’s medical devices. Some doctors, reporters and public health advocates have long decried the pharmaceutical industry’s seemingly endless attempts to buy goodwill among medical professionals. But insidious marketing campaigns seeking to rebrand medical conditions as lifestyle choices, and the patients who suffer from them as consumers, have received little scrutiny. (Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). 9, p. ). providing details of their products through journal articles or opinion leaders; Worse, the trend is seriously undermining the regulatory authority of the FDA. It’s not surprising that profit-driven, cutting-edge marketing techniques have outstripped the government agency established to guide them. What is surprising is that public health advocates haven’t ma de pharmaceutical rebranding and off-label promotions of drugs and medical devices major issues. In December, the advocacy group Consumers Union sent a letter (PDF) to the FDA requesting tighter DTC advertising regulations on medical devices. Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). The December 2007 issues of the women’s fashion magazines Allure and Harper’s Bazaar both featured multi-page spreads on non-surgical cosmetic procedures, including the array of injectable wrinkle fillers. The articles outlined the pros and cons of each filler, evaluating injection pain, cost per injection (most run between $500 and $800 per shot), and how long each lasts (Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). Dermatologist and anti-aging cream entrepreneur Dr. Patricia Wexler is featured prominently in the Bazaar story. Her remarks about each injectable reflect the marketing language of the brands themselves. When she is discussing Sculptra ®, for instance, she describes how the product acts as â€Å"a trellis on which the collagen can grow† — a line marketers use to describe how the device works. She also repeatedly suggests what are off-label, unregulated product applications, such as using injectable fillers in the eye area, in the temples, in the jawline, on the cheekbones, and in the fine lines surrounding the mouth. Dr. Wexler’s injectable filler romotions are especially credible among the target audience. Wexler regularly discusses non-invasive, anti-aging procedures on the â€Å"Oprah Winfrey Show,† the â€Å"Today Show,† and â€Å"Good Morning America,† and in the pages of Vogue and Marie Claire. The big pharma companies that make the injectable fillers likely dream of doctors touting their products and suggesting off-label uses for them in popula r women’s magazines. As the saying goes, they couldn’t buy such good press — but they probably did. (Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). Dr. David J. Triggle, a pharmacologist at the State University of New York at Buffalo who has written about drug advertising, says a doctor’s endorsement should be scrupulously honest (Saul, 2008, p. 2). Dr. Robert Jarvik, known for the artificial heart he pioneered more than a quarter-century ago. began appearing in television ads two years ago for the Pfizer cholesterol drug Lipitor (Saul, 2008, p. 1). Skip to next paragraph The ads have depicted him, among other outdoorsy pursuits, rowing a one-man racing shell swiftly across a mountain lake. When diet and exercise aren’t enough, adding Lipitor significantly lowers cholesterol,† Dr. Jarvik says in the ad. Celebrity advertising endorsements are nothing new, of course. But the Lipitor campaign is a rare instance of a well-known doctor’s endorsing a drug in advertising — and it has helped rekindle a smoldering debate over whether it is appropriate to aim ads for prescription drugs directly at consumers. A Congres sional committee, concerned that the Lipitor ads could be misleading, has said it wants to interview Dr. Jarvik about his role as the drug’s pitchman. Some of the questions may involve his credentials. Even though Dr. Jarvik holds a medical degree, for example, he is not a cardiologist and is not licensed to practice medicine. So what, critics ask, qualifies him to recommend Lipitor on television — even if, as he says in some of the ads, he takes the drug himself? (Saul, 2008, p. 1). Skip to next paragraphThe House Committee on Energy and Commerce is looking into when and why Dr. Jarvik began taking Lipitor and whether the advertisements give the public a false impression, according to John D. Dingell, the Michigan Democrat who is the committee’s chairman. â€Å"It seems that Pfizer’s No. 1 priority is to sell lots of Lipitor, by whatever means necessary, including misleading the American people,† Mr. Dingell said. Lipitor, the world’s single best-selling drug, is Pfizer’s biggest product, generating sales of $12. 7 billion last year. But as it has come under competition from cheaper generic alternatives, Pfizer has used the Jarvik campaign, introduced in early 2006, to help protect its Lipitor franchise. Wherever the Congressional inquiry leads, the controversy risks damaging Dr. Jarvik’s credibility and undermining his real medical mission. The Jarvik campaign was rolled out the same year that Zocor, Lipitor’s chief competitor, became available as a generic drug that is widely considered about as effective as Lipitor but is sold at a fraction of the cost. (Saul, 2008, p. 1). Skip to next paragraph Criticism of consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals flared as an issue back in 2004, when Merck withdrew Vioxx, a heavily advertised painkiller, after a clinical trial showed that it sharply increased the risk of heart attacks and strokes. The pharmaceutical industry adopted voluntary guidelines the next year suggesting that companies delay advertising new products for an unspecified period after they first reach the market (Saul, 2008, p. 1). In early January, the U. S. House Committee on Energy and Commerce began investigating celebrity endorsements in television ads for brand-name drugs. These direct-to-consumer (DTC) ads have been controversial since the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) loosened the rules governing pharmaceutical marketing in 1997. Before Lipitor made headlines, there was Viagra. Pfizer’s â€Å"Viva Viagra! † campaign was criticized by the FDA and organizations including the AIDS Healthcare Foundation, who said the DTC ads encouraged recreational use of the erectile dysfunction drug. One print ad suggested that Viagra be used to â€Å"celebrate† events such as the Super Bowl or New Year’s Eve. (Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). While troubling, DTC ads represent only 14 percent of pharmaceutical companies’ marketing budgets. By the time a 30-second drug commercial airs, the company has conducted months of segmentation studies, held dozens of meetings to define the â€Å"communication target† (typically a woman, usually a mother, and of a certain income), and spent millions of dollars to develop the drug’s brand and its market. This strategic marketing, which represents the remaining 86 percent of drug promotion expenses, should receive at least as much attention from regulators and lawmakers as DTC ads. (Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). While DTC ads seek to change patients’ behavior, pharmaceutical companies are more interested in changing doctors’ behavior. Drug marketers work hard to persuade doctors to prescribe their branded drug over generics and other competitors, and to change other medical practices that limit company profits. To cultivate medical professionals, drug companies may retain a doctor as a spokesperson, position friendly medical â€Å"thought-leaders† in the media, or organize free events at posh resorts and expensive hotels to â€Å"educate† doctors about a new disease state (think Restless Leg Syndrome) or their latest drug. In 2000, the biggest 10 pharmaceutical companies spent $1. 9 billion on promotional events alone (Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). For example, the FDA found that Eli Lilly’s television broadcast advertisement for Strattera (atomoxetine) was false or misleading because it inadequately communicated the indication for the drug (attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder) by means of competing visuals, graphics, and music presented concurrently. Similarly, serious risk disclosures were minimized for Strattera, the FDA said, by the distracting visuals and graphics (e. . , erratic camera movement, quick scene changes, and visual changes in point of view). In another case, the FDA said Pfizer’s print advertisement for Zoloft (sertraline) was false or misleading because it omitted important information relating to the risk of suicidality in patients, a risk stated on the product’s label at the time the advertisement ran. (Donohue, Cevasco, Rosenthal, 2007, p. 1). Drugs that are advertised to consumers are predominantly new drugs used to treat chronic conditions. Ten of the top 20 drugs, as ranked by advertising spending, were introduced in 2000 or later. Advertising campaigns generally begin within a year after the introduction of a pharmaceutical product, which raises questions about the extent to which advertising increases the use of drugs with unknown safety profiles. At least one pharmaceutical manufacturer (Bristol-Myers Squibb) recently announced a voluntary moratorium on direct-to-consumer advertising for drugs in the first year after FDA approval. And PhRMA, the industry trade group, has recommended that manufacturers delay such campaigns for new drugs until after health professionals have been sufficiently educated, although no details have been provided on how long a period was deemed necessary. 20 Finally, in a recent study of drug safety, the Institute of Medicine recommended that the FDA restrict advertising for newer prescription drugs. 8 Our data show that a mandatory waiting period on advertising for new drugs would represent a dramatic departure from current industry practices. For example, the FDA found that Eli Lilly’s television broadcast advertisement for Strattera (atomoxetine) was false or misleading because it inadequately communicated the indication for the drug (attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder) by means of competing visuals, graphics, and music presented concurrently. Similarly, serious risk disclosures were minimized for Strattera, the FDA said, by the distracting visuals and graphics (e. g. , erratic camera movement, quick scene changes, and visual changes in point of view). In another case, the FDA said Pfizer’s print advertisement for Zoloft (sertraline) was false or misleading because it omitted important information relating to the risk of suicidality in patients, a risk stated on the product’s label at the time the advertisement ran. (Donohue, Cevasco, ; Rosenthal, 2007, p. 1). direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs on television. Such advertising has been criticized for encouraging inappropriate use of medications and driving up drug spending. ,2 Concern that such advertising may lead to increased use of expensive medications was amplified by the introduction of a prescription-drug benefit in Medicare in 2006 (Part D). Studies of the effect of advertising on prescribing practices have shown that such advertising increases classwide sales, helps to avert underuse of medicines to treat chronic conditions, and leads to some overuse of prescription drugs. (Donohue, Cevasco, ; Rosenthal, 2007, p. 1). Direct-to-consumer advert ising has also been controversial in light of postmarketing revelations regarding problems with drug safety. Specifically, clinical trials that are required for drug approval are typically not designed to detect rare but significant adverse effects, and contemporary methods of postmarketing surveillance often fail to connect adverse events that have a high rate of background prevalence with the use of particular drugs. After the market withdrawal of Vioxx (rofecoxib), a drug heavily promoted to consumers,6 critics called for the FDA to place limits on direct-to-consumer advertising, particularly for new drugs,7 a view that was reiterated in a recent report by the Institute of Medicine on the safety of medicines. (Donohue, Cevasco, ; Rosenthal, 2007, p. 1). Sponsoring continuing medical education describes the influence of sponsoring on the results, protocol and quality of drugs studies (Deutsches Aerzteblatt International, 2010, p. 1). The authors conclude that pharmaceutical companies exploit a wide variety of possibilities of manipulating study results. Apart from financing the study, fin ancial links to the authors, such as payments for lectures, may tend to make the results of the study more favourable for the company. Not only the results themselves, but also their interpretation, are significantly more often in accordance with the wishes of the sponsor. (Deutsches Aerzteblatt International, 2010, p. 1). In some publications, the authors detected evidence that sponsors from the pharmaceutical industry had influenced study protocols. For example, placebos were more frequently used in drug studies than was the case with independently financed studies. On the other hand, some favourable effects were linked to financial support from the pharmaceutical industry. The methodological quality of studies with industrial support tended to be better than with independent drug studies(Deutsches Aerzteblatt International, 2010, p. 1). Most physicians must complete accredited continuing medical education (CME) programs to maintain their medical licenses, hospital privileges, and specialty board certifications. Data from the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) show that CME is a $2 billion per year business in the United States that earns less than half its revenue from physician learners themselves. CME is increasingly underwritten by commercial sponsors — primarily manufacturers of drugs, biologic therapies, or medical devices — that spend more than $1 billion per year in educational grants and other funding to cover more than half the costs for CME activities (Morris ; Taitsman, 2009, p. 1). In recent years, a number of studies have shown that clinical drug trials financed by pharmaceutical companies yield fa vorable results for company products more often than independent trials do. Moreover, pharmaceutical companies have been found to influence drug trials in various ways. Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Published drug trials that were financed by pharmaceutical companies, or whose authors declared a financial conflict of interest, were found to yield favorable results for the drug manufacturer more frequently than independently financed trials whose authors had no such conflicts. The results were also interpreted favorably more often than in independently financed trials. Furthermore, there was evidence that pharmaceutical companies influenced study protocols in a way that was favorable to themselves. The methodological quality of trials financed by pharmaceutical companies was not found to be any worse than that of trials financed in other ways. Conclusion: Published drug trials that are financed by pharmaceutical companies may present a distorted picture. This cannot be explained by any difference in methodological quality between such trials and trials financed in other ways. (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Clinical drug trials funded by pharmaceutical companies yield favorable results for the sponsor’s products more often than independent trials do. This has been demonstrated by a number of studies in recent years Various ways have been described in which pharmaceutical concerns exert influence on the protocol and conduct of drug trials, as well as on the interpretation and publication of their results. This systematic review showed widespread conflicts of interest in the shape of financial connections between scientists, academic institutions, and the pharmaceutical industry. Around one quarter of academic staff and two thirds of academic institutions had financial relationships with industry. Analysis of 8 review articles embracing a total of 1140 original articles (including randomized controlled trials [RCT], economic analyses, and retrospective cohort studies) revealed a statistically significant association between funding by biomedical companies and conclusions favorable to the pharmaceutical industry (summarized odds ratio [OR] 3. 6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2. 6–4. 9). Industry financing was also connected with limitations of publication rights and constraints on access to trial data. Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). In the second review, a systematic analysis of 30 publications, Lexchin et al. showed that drug trials financed by pharmaceutical companies are less likely to be published, but that those published more frequently yield positive results for the sponsors’ products than do independently funded studies (8). The quality of the methods employed (analyzed in 13 publications) in trials financed by pharmaceut ical companies was not inferior to that in studies with other sources of funding. Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). The authors of the present systematic review set out to assess whether recently published studies reveal a connection between financing of drug trials by pharmaceutical companies and results favorable to these companies’ products. Part 1 investigates whether and, if so, how the type of funding affects study protocol and quality. Part 2 identifies and depicts the aspects of clinical drug trials that can be influenced by financial support from the pharmaceutical industry. Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). The publications included were primarily studies performed with the expressed goal of comparing clinical trials funded by pharmaceutical companies with clinical trials that had not received financial support from such companies, e. g. , with regard to the results or conclusions. These studies were accompanied by a number of publications that investigated the consequences of financing of a study by pharmaceutical companies. These included, for example, articles in which information from the files of the US licensing authority (Food and Drug Administration, FDA) was compared with data from publications in medical journals, and case studies on individual substances. (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Connection between type of funding and results of drug trials Twenty-six of the 57 publications analyzed sought to ascertain whether the results and/or conclusions of drug trials depended on the type of funding or on financial conflicts of interest on the part of the authors (eTable). Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Altogether, 23 of these 26 studies came to the conclusion that there was a positive correlation between the financing of a study by pharmaceutical companies and/or conflicts of interest on the part of the authors and results or conclusions that were favorable to the sponsor. The statistical significance of this finding was investi gated in 22 cases and confirmed in 20. (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. ). In 4 cases it was apparent that the findings were interpreted favorably towards the pharmaceutical concern that had funded the study, independent of the results (e5–e8). (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Another study investigated the connection between the conclusions and the source of financial support in clinical trials that had appeared in 5 influential medical journals over a period of 20 years (e10). Most trials yielded positive results for the drug in question regardless of the funding source, but this study also revealed a trend over the course of time towards more positive findings in industrially financed trials than in trials supported by non-profit organizations (e10). The third study compared the results (but not the interpretations or conclusions) of clinical trials of drugs used in pain management, some of them long available as generics (e9). (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. ). Five of the 57 studies analyzed investigated whether funding by pharmaceutical companies affected the design of the study protocol (Table 1 gif ppt). The use of placebos was shown to be significantly more common in RCTs of drugs for psoriasis that were financed by such companies than in those with funding from other sources (e12). Moreover, several studies of treatment for premature ejaculation that were sponsored by a pharmaceutical company were found to have disre garded the relevant objective endpoint (e13). In an investigation of inhaled corticosteroids, significant differences in the frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADR) between the probands and the control group occurred only half as often when the study had been funded by the manufacturers (see also Part 2). The differences could be attributed wholly to the study design. For example, studies financed by pharmaceutical companies used lower dosages. (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). The pharmaceutical company concerned investigated the marketing effect of the study, finding that participating physicians did indeed prescribe rofecoxib significantly more often than non-participants in its first 6 months on the market. (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). The results of clinical drug trials that are funded by pharmaceutical companies or whose authors have financial conflicts of interest are favorable to the products of the sponsoring company far more frequently than studies whose funding comes from other sources. Furthermore, interpretation of the data in the conclusions of industrially financed trials more often favors the sponsor. This was shown by the present systematic review and analysis of investigations, published between 1 November 2002 and 16 December 2009, into various diseases, study types (e. g. , RCTs and observational studies), and drugs. The results confirm the conclusions of 2 systematic reviews, both published in 2003, conducted with similar intent (7, 8). The principle of equipoise, i. e. , uncertainty which of the alternative approaches benefits the patient most, forms the ethical foundation of clinical studies in which the probands receive various treatments (14). This principle seems to be violated in many studies funded by pharmaceutical companies. (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). There are numerous reasons why studies financed by pharmaceutical manufacturers more often yield positive results. Four investigations found evidence that pharmaceutical companies influence the study protocol to their advantage (e12–e14, e19), e. g. , by more frequent use of placebos in control groups than in independently funded studies (e12). Although the responsible authorities sometimes demand placebo-controlled trials as a condition of licensing, they also request active controls (15). Further factors leading to higher frequency of results favorable to the sponsor in trials funded by pharmaceutical companies are described in Part 2 of this review. Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Trials financed by pharmaceutical concerns displayed no signs of poorer methodological quality. On the contrary, two studies showed superior quality (e16, e17). It must be taken into account, however, that some factors that serve to assess the quality of the instruments used in a study were not determined, among them the clinical relevance of the target parameters. In oncolog y, for instance, there are currently major defects in the protocols of industrially sponsored clinical trials, e. . , deficiencies in the definition of patient-relevant endpoints and in the selection of suitable substances for the control arm of RCTs (16–19). Moreover, clinical trials in oncology are often discontinued after preliminary analysis (20), with the result that only a short time after the licensing of a drug its additional benefits and the safety of new substances can frequently no longer be evaluated, preventing any benefit/risk analysis (21). (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Conclusion: Wansink argues that the true challenge in marketing nutrition lies in leveraging new tools of consumer psychology (which he specifically demonstrates) and by applying lessons from other products’ failures and successes. The same tools and insights that have helped make less nutritious products popular also offer the best opportunity to reintroduce a nutritious lifestyle. The key problem with marketing nutrition remains, after all, marketing. (Wansink, 2007, p. 1). New services must therefore be oriented toward consumers (i. e. , patients, health professionals, and third-party agencies) to gain acceptance (Grauer, 1981, p. ). We encourage family physicians interested in providing the best care for their patients to become educated in the advertising techniques used by the pharmaceutical industry. (Shaughnessy, Slawson, Bennett, 1994, p. 1). | | | | | | | | | | | new challenges as well as opportunities for increasing profitability. If the pharmaceutical companies want to improv e their Return-On-Investment (ROI), they have to adopt new communication technologies (digital media) along with their conventional sales force of medical representatives. They really need to adopt this multi channel marketing strategies for the following reasons: The concept of blockbuster drugs is dying out for big pharmaceutical companies where 2-3 drugs were good enough to pay back the whole investment for a larger number of manufactured drugs. Now the limited prospective for blockbuster drugs (thanks to low investment on RD and patent expiry) makes it essential to focus on more specialized drugs sold in lower volumes. And when there is low volume products, sales driven marketing strategy (with high cost of sales force) is not feasible. As far as small pharma companies are concerned, they already have small sales force. However, with the use of digital media, having a lower investment cost (both for the company and its targeted customer) they can easily get return on investment. Customer behavior (doctors behavior) is rapidly changing. Doctors, who are getting more and more busy with increasing patients, can be hardly seen by the medical representatives. They are more inclined towards Internet for obtaining relevant information. It is the time for pharmaceutical companies to build their marketing strategies around this digital media. Website marketing, online marketing, blogs, social media, forums, chat rooms and any other such media is an influential means to present the company’s products and offers through opinion leaders (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). The right marketing strategy for any pharmaceutical company would be to build on proven strategic marketing principles, along with a focus on changing customer behavior. Use of digital media through Internet marketing plan is the best marketing strategy that can provide the basis for a changed business model. However, there should be some planning for using digital media for marketing too. It should be a multi channel marketing strategy but should identify the target audience. Every digital media used for all people can not be called the right marketing strategy. The focus should be on the high value customer segment for pharmaceutical products (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). How to cite Pharmaceutical Marketing, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Ecology and Biodiversity free essay sample

This includes the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (EPBC Act), conservation of private land, and so on. 1. Introduction Biodiversity provides lots of natural resources and services for everyone such as ecosystem services, biological services and social services. From the needs of the poor to even the world’s economy depends mostly on things derived from biological resources. Medical discoveries, economic development, and adaptive responses to the challenges faced due to dramatic climate change benefit with rich biological resources, as high cost is incurred if we need to replace them. However, biodiversity is threatened by different aspects, which in terms affecting the whole ecosystem as well as our economy. Biological conservations should take place in order to conserve biodiversity. 2. Biodiversity in Australia 2. 1 Definition Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth, the biological diversity is also called biodiversity. Biodiversity involves the amount of living organisms, such as plants, animals, and microorganisms, the genes that each species contain, and the ecosystems the organisms depend on, such as woodlands, coral reefs, and deserts. Australia Museum, 2009) Biodiversity acts as an indicator of the health of ecosystems. The greater it is the healthier the ecosystems are. Biodiversity also affected the climate. In terrestrial habitats, more species are found in tropical regions whereas less species are found in polar regions. Out of 13. 6 million species of plants, animals and micro-organisms on earth, Australia occupies approximately a million of them which are more than 7% of the world’s total. As one of the twelve megadiverse countries, Australia contains about 75% of Earth’s total biodiversity. Australia is a developed country, she has the responsibility in managing and conserving biodiversity. 3. 2 Importance of Biodiversity Humans benefit from biodiversity in 3 different ways: ecosystem services, biological resources and social benefits. 3. 3. 1 Ecosystem services Biodiversity plays an important role in nutrient storage and recycling. At the same time biodiversity is breaking down and absorbing the pollution caused by human activities. As pollution are mostly broken down and absorbed, the climate is stay more or less stabilized through the contribution of biodiversity. Biodiversity can help in maintaining the ecosystems that are damaged by human activities. 3. 3. 2 Biological resources Biodiversity provides lots of raw material and biological resources for humans, e. g. food, wood products, as medicinal resources and pharmaceutical drugs. Biodiversity even acts as our future resources. 2. 2. 3 Social benefits Biodiversity benefits us socially. It acts as a subject for us to do research, education and monitoring. Biodiversity can also a site of recreation and tourist attraction for us to enjoy and relax. It also has significant cultural values. (Anup S, 2009) 2. 3 Threats Over the last 200 years Australia has suffered the largest documented decline in biodiversity of any continent. No matter how hard they try to manage threats and pressures to biodiversity, the biodiversity in Australia is still declining. 2. 3. 1 Environmental changes Firstly, over the past thousands of years, indigenous people have been interacting with Australia’s environment causing influence over the course of evolution. Vegetation patterns are affected by their use of fire for land managing. Hunting and the building of fish traps have had affect the natural environment where species’ population levels may have decreased or even become extinct. (Australian Museum, 2009) Secondly, over the past 200 years, Australia suffered from a tremendous loss of biodiversity and rate increase of environmental change due to the arrival of Europeans. New species and human technology were brought into Australia by the European settlement. Hence, the ecosystem was disturbed and threatened. (Virginia G, 2002) 2. 3. 2 Over-population Population growth is increasing gradually, demand of space and resources, disposal of goods increase simultaneously. Through agriculture, urbanization, industrialization and the exploitation of natural resources, we are in terms disturbing and destructing the habitats. If we over-use these resources, population size of certain species may be reduced due to rate of consumption is much fast than rate of production. As population growth, more energy are consumed, therefore more oil, coal or fossil fuels have to be burnt. Through the burning process, carbon-dioxide is produced, which is the main factor of global warming and can change the nature of ecosystems. Also, for the introduction of exotic species will bring diseases with them and will have competition with native biodiversity for food and shelter. (Australian Museum, 2009) 2. 3. 3 Climate Change Climate changes around the globe and also in Australia. Average temperature is rising and natural disasters like droughts, high fire danger weather are expected to occur more frequently. Climate change will affect the sea temperature and sea level and also leading to the melting of polar ice. Biodiversity is very sensitive to climate change. As the environment changes, some species like the migrating birds, will be lost and cannot find their direction which may up set the species’ distribution. (Department of the Environment, 2003) 2. 4 Impact 2. 4. 1 Extinction Where a life form has evolved extinction is also involved. Approximately 30 billion species have lived, but only about 0. 01% of them live on Earth today. We human are not the ones who have actually caused most mass extinctions. Scientists said that we are going to witness the sixth mass extinction. Where mass extinctions occurred in the pass had been recorded in the Earth’s history, e. g. extinction of dinosaurs. Loss of species is a major threat to biodiversity in Australia. Species of animals and plants under threat may be listed in one of the following categories (Australian Museum, 2009): * Extinct * Extinct in the wild * Critically endangered * Endangered * Vulnerable * Conservation dependent 2. 5 Biodiversity Conservation National framework for biodiversity conservation The Australian Government knows the importance of biodiversity conservation and, in cooperating with the states and territories through the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council, is setting a national framework for biodiversity conservation. (NRMMC, 2010) Australian environment legislation EPBC Act The Australian Government is responsible for biodiversity conservation through the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) the Australian Governments key piece of environmental legislation. Through it, a legal framework to protect and manage biodiversity nationally and internationally is provided. Department of Environment, 2010) Caring for our Country Farmers, native peoples, and other private land managers manage around 77 per cent of Australias land. To protect Australia’s environmental assets, the Australian Government acknowledges the conservation of biodiversity on private lands. The Australian Government invested more than $2 billi on in 2008-2013 in Caring for our Country initiative which supports communities, farmers and other land holders to protect Australias natural environment and provide food and fibre sustainably. The Environmental Stewardship Program of Caring for our Country aims at maintaining and improving the quality and extent of highly-valued environmental assets on private land. A significant factor of the Caring for Our Country initiative is the National Reserve System. This is a nation-wide network of reserves which is set up for the protection of Australias unique natural environment for our offspring (Department of Environment, 2010) Conservation on private land The Australian Government realizes conservation of biodiversity on private land is a significant way to conserve Australias biodiversity. Governments encourage private land holders to conserve biodiversity by providing them with incentives. (Department of Environment, 2010) Australian Government Incentives * There are agreements which are used to protect and conserve the biodiversity in land or sea between the Australian Government Environment Minister and other parties, who known as EPBC Act Conservation Agreements. The Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts has responsibility for a number of administrative arrangements relating to taxation concessions that seek to conserve and protect the natural environment. In order to conserve and protect the natural environment, a number of administrative arrangements which relate to taxation concessions are responded by the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. * Tender based approaches and auctions are to provide conservation payment to community groups and individuals for conservation works of biodiversity. * The National Reserve Sys tem is Australias network of protected areas. Funding can be applied for organizations to buy land for conservation or to work with landholders, to help them set up a continuous conservation agreement on their private land. Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council, 2010) 3. Conclusion Biodiversity, or biological diversity, is the variety of all species on earth. It is the different plants, animals and micro-organisms, their genes, and the terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems of which they are a part. (Department of the Environment, 2010) Biodiversity provides us with many goods and services. However, in the past 200 years Australia has suffered with the most significant drop in biodiversity. http://australianmuseum. net. au/What-is-biodiversity