Sunday, May 24, 2020
A binomial random variable provides an important example of a discrete random variable.Ã The binomial distribution, which describes the probability for each value of our random variable, can be determined completely by the two parameters: nÃ and p.Ã Here n is the number of independent trials and p is the constant probability of success in each trial.Ã The tables below provide binomial probabilities for n 7,8 and 9.Ã The probabilities in each are rounded to three decimal places. Should aÃ binomial distribution be used?.Ã Ã Before jumping in to use this table, we need to check that the following conditions are met: We have a finite number of observations or trials.The outcome of each trial can be classified as either a success or a failure.The probability of success remains constant.The observations are independent of one another. When these four conditions are met, the binomial distribution will give the probability of r successes in an experiment with a total of n independent trials, each having probability of success p.Ã Ã The probabilities in the table are calculated by the formula C(n, r)pr(1 - p)n - r where C(n, r) is the formula for combinations.Ã There are separate tables for each value of n.Ã Each entry in the table is organized by the values of p and of r.Ã Other Tables For other binomial distribution tables we have n 2 to 6, n 10 to 11. When the values of npÃ and n(1 - p) are both greater than or equal to 10, we can use the normal approximation to the binomial distribution.Ã This gives us a good approximation of our probabilities and does not require the calculation of binomial coefficients.Ã This provides a great advantage because these binomial calculations can be quite involved. Example Genetics has many connections to probability.Ã We will look at one to illustrate the use of the binomial distribution.Ã Suppose we know that probability of an offspring inheriting two copies of a recessive gene (and hence possessing the recessive trait we are studying) is 1/4.Ã Furthermore, we want to calculate the probability that a certain number of children in an eight-member family possesses this trait.Ã Let X be the number of children with this trait.Ã We look at the table for n 8 and the column with p 0.25, and see the following: .100.267.311.208.087.023.004 This means for our example that P(X 0) 10.0%, which is the probability that none of the children has the recessive trait.P(X 1) 26.7%, which is the probability that one of the children has the recessive trait.P(X 2) 31.1%, which is the probability that two of the children have the recessive trait.P(X 3) 20.8%, which is the probability that three of the children have the recessive trait.P(X 4) 8.7%, which is the probability that four of the children have the recessive trait.P(X 5) 2.3%, which is the probability that five of the children have the recessive trait.P(X 6) 0.4%, which is the probability that six of the children have the recessive trait. Tables for n 7 to n 9 n 7 p .01 .05 .10 .15 .20 .25 .30 .35 .40 .45 .50 .55 .60 .65 .70 .75 .80 .85 .90 .95 r 0 .932 .698 .478 .321 .210 .133 .082 .049 .028 .015 .008 .004 .002 .001 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 1 .066 .257 .372 .396 .367 .311 .247 .185 .131 .087 .055 .032 .017 .008 .004 .001 .000 .000 .000 .000 2 .002 .041 .124 .210 .275 .311 .318 .299 .261 .214 .164 .117 .077 .047 .025 .012 .004 .001 .000 .000 3 .000 .004 .023 .062 .115 .173 .227 .268 .290 .292 .273 .239 .194 .144 .097 .058 .029 .011 .003 .000 4 .000 .000 .003 .011 .029 .058 .097 .144 .194 .239 .273 .292 .290 ;268 .227 .173 .115 .062 .023 .004 5 .000 .000 .000 .001 .004 .012 .025 .047 .077 .117 .164 .214 .261 .299 .318 .311 .275 .210 .124 .041 6 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .004 .008 .017 .032 .055 .087 .131 .185 .247 .311 .367 .396 .372 .257 7 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .002 .004 .008 .015 .028 .049 .082 .133 .210 .321 .478 .698 n 8 p .01 .05 .10 .15 .20 .25 .30 .35 .40 .45 .50 .55 .60 .65 .70 .75 .80 .85 .90 .95 r 0 .923 .663 .430 .272 .168 .100 .058 .032 .017 .008 .004 .002 .001 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 1 .075 .279 .383 .385 .336 .267 .198 .137 .090 .055 .031 .016 .008 .003 .001 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 2 .003 .051 .149 .238 .294 .311 .296 .259 .209 .157 .109 .070 .041 .022 .010 .004 .001 .000 .000 .000 3 .000 .005 .033 .084 .147 .208 .254 .279 .279 .257 .219 .172 .124 .081 .047 .023 .009 .003 .000 .000 4 .000 .000 .005 :018 .046 .087 .136 .188 .232 .263 .273 .263 .232 .188 .136 .087 .046 .018 .005 .000 5 .000 .000 .000 .003 .009 .023 .047 .081 .124 .172 .219 .257 .279 .279 .254 .208 .147 .084 .033 .005 6 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .004 .010 .022 .041 .070 .109 .157 .209 .259 .296 .311 .294 .238 .149 .051 7 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .003 .008 .016 .031 .055 .090 .137 .198 .267 .336 .385 .383 .279 8 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 000 .000 .000 .001 .002 .004 .008 .017 .032 .058 .100 .168 .272 .430 .663 n 9 r p .01 .05 .10 .15 .20 .25 .30 .35 .40 .45 .50 .55 .60 .65 .70 .75 .80 .85 .90 .95 0 .914 .630 .387 .232 .134 .075 .040 .021 .010 .005 .002 .001 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 1 .083 .299 .387 .368 .302 .225 .156 .100 .060 .034 .018 .008 .004 .001 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 2 .003 .063 .172 .260 .302 .300 .267 .216 .161 .111 .070 .041 .021 .010 .004 .001 .000 .000 .000 .000 3 .000 .008 .045 .107 .176 .234 .267 .272 .251 .212 .164 .116 .074 .042 .021 .009 .003 .001 .000 .000 4 .000 .001 .007 .028 .066 .117 .172 .219 .251 .260 .246 .213 .167 .118 .074 .039 .017 .005 .001 .000 5 .000 .000 .001 .005 .017 .039 .074 .118 .167 .213 .246 .260 .251 .219 .172 .117 .066 .028 .007 .001 6 .000 .000 .000 .001 .003 .009 .021 .042 .074 .116 .164 .212 .251 .272 .267 .234 .176 .107 .045 .008 7 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .004 .010 .021 .041 .070 .111 .161 .216 .267 .300 .302 .260 .172 .063 8 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .004 .008 .018 .034 .060 .100 .156 .225 .302 .368 .387 .299 9 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .002 .005 .010 .021 .040 .075 .134 .232 .387 .630
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1408 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/04/02 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: A Raisin in the Sun Essay Did you like this example? Money is like a double ended sword, as it makes life easier on one hand while at the same time most of the problems in many families all revolve around money. Raisin in the sun play was written by Hansberry which the center of all the issues they are facing hence the central motif in the story. The Younger family made up of five is living in a house fit for three as they try to gain middle-class acceptance in the community as they are a lower-class black family. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Lorraine Hansberrys A Raisin In The Sun" essay for you Create order A $10,000 check is to arrive through the mail as insurance check Big Walter worked hard to attain and each family member has different opinions on how the check should be spent. Lena, Ruth, and Beneatha imagine money as a path towards their road out of poverty, but Walter sees money as the only way out of their current life to a better one. He has big dreams and fantasies of how the funds will heighten his social standing as well as acquire items which he currently cant afford due to his low paying job as a chauffeur. In the begging of the play Walter hurriedly rushes in and asks Did it come? To which his mother replies Cant you give people a Christian greeting before you start asking about money? This clearly shows that Walter does not care about anything else apart from the check they are about to receive. In act 1 scene two Lena argues with Walter whether money has become life this day as there used to be a time when people did consider freedom as life. Walter gets back to her saying that all along it has always been about money its just that people did not know about it. Walter tries to show the reader that money is the center of everything, having it one can be able to attain any social class they desire. However, this is not true as money is not always a guarantee happiness and success in life. There are many other things which money can never be able to buy them. Lena has always wanted a bigger house with a backyard and with the arrival of the check comes the chance for her to get her famil y a better house. This is seen as a way of climbing up the social class in the society. Even though Walter is not happy about the decision of buying the house let alone the neighborhood they will have to have into is a white only. He accuses his mother of killing his dream of opening a liquor store yet she is the one talking about dreaming big. However, Lena always has her son in mind and is willing to give him a chance as she hands him the remaining amount for him to pay Beneathas tuition fees and save the rest. Having big dreams and plans is always a way of life but when the limits of how big the goals should be are exceeded then a problem may arise within an individual especially if not given a chance to achieve those dreams. Lena is well aware of this as she advises her son that it is not worth holding onto anything be it money or ideas if in the end, it is going to destroy you. Chasing after money alone will make one lose out on many other essential aspects of life. With the hopes of opening a liquor store drowning after Bobo tells Walter that their alleged friend has swindled them, and the money is no more he angrily says, Man, must trust you Man, I put my life in your hands man. And with that, he is bac k to having only dreams only about a better future. Money has become an idol which everyone is worshiping or chasing after including children. Travis asks for 50 cents from Ruth before he heads to school which he is denied at first but later Walter hands him a one dollar bill. Children have also become obsessed with money in the society, and it is becoming a norm to pay them off with every little thing they do or help around in the homestead. This eventually leads to them growing with the belief that money is everything hence will always chase after it. All the money is gone and Walter being frustrated, Mama still says that there is something left to love about him and asks if they have cried for the Walter for what he must be going through and the experience he has passed through. Lena knows that money is not everything provided that the family is healthy and happy everything is okay. Karl Lindner is sent to the Youngers to acquire the house they had previously bought in a white neighborhood at a price even higher than the original price tag as the residents of Clybourne dont have any relationship with the black family in order to move out because they have worked hard and will do anything to protect their dreams. However, Lana is against the idea of selling the house as she tells her Walter, Son I come from five generations of people who was slaves and sharecroppers but aint nobody in my family never let nobody pay them no money that was a way of telling us we werent fit to walk the earth. We aint never been that poor. We aint never been that dead inside. The white neighborhood believes that with money they can acquire anything even get the Youngers to sell their house simply because they do not want them living amongst them even if it means paying a higher price to buy the house. Despite all, in the end, a family is what comes first. Lena knows that it is the family is superior to money that is why she does not get mad when Walter misuses his entire fathers life work in a day by getting conned. Ruth feels the same way, and all she cares about is her family is happy. Willy who was supposed to be a friend to both Walter and Bobo decides to walk away with all their money in the name of going to get a license but never returns. Their friendship ceases to exist all for money. Many strong friendships and relationships come to an end with the cause being money. Everybody believes that money is everything and they can even sacrifice their friends dreams to get it. Walter is all about being great and climbing the social class in the society. He puts his dreams ahead of Beneathas dream of attending medical school and ends up losing all the money. She does not take this well in the beginning as she says; Did you dream of yachts on Lake Michigan, Brother? Did you see yourself on that Great Day sitting down at the Conference Table, surrounded by all the mighty bald men in America? All halted, waiting, breathless, waiting for your pronouncements on the industry? Waiting for you Chairman of the Board, I look at you, and I see the final triumph of stupidity in the world! Hansberry Central motif in the play is money as the whole plot revolves around the $10,000 check the Youngers receive after their father passed away. Money easily tears families apart if every member is always chasing it as conflicts are bound to happen. It is the root of evil in the society today as all bad things happening are mainly due to peoples thirst for money. Many innocent individuals have fallen victims even some end up dead if they try to stop someone from stealing or harming others for money. Immorality is on the rise and the number of youth engaging in prostitution and other immoral activities such as stealing for money has risen in the past the reason being everybody wants to get rich but no one is willing to work hard for it hence looks for an alternative method to getting it and this tends to be activities going against what is morally right. Conclusively, the author clearly shows that Walter does not care about anything else apart from the check they are about to receive. In addition, Money easily tears families apart if every member is always chasing it as conflicts are bound to happen. It is the root of evil in the society today as all bad things happening are mainly due to peoples thirst for money.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Pharmaceutical Marketing Merck Ã¢â¬Å"Merck has gone beyond developing and selling prescription pharmaceuticals. It formed joint ventures in 1989 with Johnson Johnson to sell over the-counter pharmaceuticals; in 1991 with DuPont to expand basic research, and in 2000 with Scherigng-Plough to develop and market new prescriptions medicines. In 1997, Merck and Rhone-Poulenc S. We will write a custom essay sample on Pharmaceutical Marketing or any similar topic only for you Order Now A. (now Sanofi-Aventis S. A. ) combined animal health and poultry genetics business to form Merial Limited, a fully integrated animal health company. Finally, Merck purchased Medco, a mail Ã¢â¬âorder pharmaceutical distributor, in 2003, and Sirna Therapeutics in 2006Ã¢â¬ (Kotler Keller, 2012, p. 43-44). Ã¢â¬Å"For branding strategies to be successful and brand value to be created, consumers must be convinced there are meaningful differences among brands in the product or service category. Brand differences often related to attributes or benefits of the product itself . . Merck has lead (its) product categories for decades, due in part to continual innovationÃ¢â¬ (Kotler Keller, 2012, p. 243). Merck has donated $100 million or more to charities in a year (Kotler Keller, 2012, p. 632). Mission Statements Ex. Japan Both pharmaceutical and biotech companies are starting to make partnership a core competency (Kotler Keller, 2012, p. 52). Intro: Michael Dawson, author of Ã¢â¬Å"The Consumer Trap,Ã¢â¬ states that the business of marketing, a trillion-dollar Ã¢â¬âa-year industry, is a social, economical, environmental, and unfriendly cost on Americans today as it Ã¢â¬Å"continues to soak up economic and environmental resources and dominate the personal lives of citizensÃ¢â¬ (Dawson, 2005, p. ). Dawson argues that corporate America is fueled by a continuous marketing race that manipulates peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions and actions of goods into thinking the economy is out to serve oneÃ¢â¬â¢s pleasures and happiness, when in all reality, is only out to serve the demand of business today (Dawson, 2005, p. 1). Ã¢â¬Å"It is critical that the U. S. government recognizes that intelligently focused nutrition-related efforts are important in helping lead Americans of all ages to lead healthier lifestyles. Marketing Nutrition shows how simple solutions can save lives. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬âCongressman Timothy V. Johnson, United States House of Representatives (Wansink, 2007, p. 1). There are enormous economic dividends for health care providers, public health institutions, and commercial food companies if we are successful in doing this. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬âDr. David Mela, Expertise Group Leader, Unilever Health Institute(Wansink, 2007, p. 1). Marketing = A mechanism to help pharmacy develop, communicate, and sell future pharmaceutical services to consumers (Grauer, 1981, p. ). Pharmaceutical marketing is an Ã¢â¬Å"element of an information continuum, where research concepts are transformed into practical therapeutic tools and where information is progressively layered and made more useful to the health care systemÃ¢â¬ (Levy, 1994, p. 1). Provides an informed choice of carefully characterized agents (Levy, 1994, p. 1). marketing assists physicians in matching drug therapy to individual patient needs (Levy, 1994, p. 1). Pharmaceutical marketing is presently the most organized and comprehensive information system for updating physicians about the availability, safety, efficacy, hazards, and techniques of using medicines (Levy, 1994, p. 1). pharmaceutical marketing strategies can negatively affect both- the end consumers or the patients and the health care profession (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). Also, the advertising strategies included in the marketing plan of any pharmaceutical company is not Ã¢â¬Ëdirect to consumerÃ¢â¬â¢ (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. ). Any pharmaceutical marketing strategy targets the health care professionals or the Doctors who in turn prescribe the drugs to the patients (end consumers) liable to pay for the products (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). However, a few countries (till date two countries- New Zealand and United States) allow Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTC advertising) for pharmaceutical products (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). Pharmaceutical Market Trends 2010. Pharmaceutical Drug Manufacturer Resources. Retrieved from: http://www. pharmaceutical-drug-manufacturers. com/articles/pharmaceutical-market-trends-2010. html The global pharmaceutical is forecasted to make a significant growth of about 4 Ã¢â¬â 6%, exceeding $975 billion, with global pharmaceutical market sales expecting to grow at a 4 Ã¢â¬â 7% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) through 2013, based upon global macroeconomy as well the Ã¢â¬Å"changing combination of innovative and mature products apart from the rising influence of healthcare access and funding on market demandÃ¢â¬ (Pharmaceutical Market Trends 2010, p. ). pharmaceutical sales are growing at a fast rate in India, China, Malaysia, South Korea and Indonesia due to the rising disposable income, several health insurance schemes (that ensures the sales of branded drugs), and intense competition among top pharmaceutical companies in the region (that has boosted the availability of low cost drugs). India Ã¢â¬â 3rd Largest Producer of Pharmaceuticals Across the World- is already a US$ 8. 2 Billion pharmaceutical market. The Indian pharmaceutical industry is further expected to grow by 10% in the year 2010. (Pharmaceutical Market Trends 2010, p. 1). The development of infrastructure and rapidly changing regulations in the Middle East are being seen as the cause of its growth. Presently South Africa, Saudi Arabia and Israel dominate the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s pharmaceutical industry due to their better infrastructure and regulatory environment. However, The Middle East pharma market depends on imported pharmaceutical drugs and therapeutics. The governments of countries in this region are taking measures to raise their domestic production through heavy investments in the pharmaceutical industry (Pharmaceutical Market Trends 2010, p. 1). Pharmaceutical Drugs Trends of fastest expected growth consist of anti-Diabetic Drugs and those for cardiovascular diseases, due to the changes in demographics and lifestyle with anti-hypertensives drugs will dominate the global cardiovascular market with a market share of nearly 50% (Pharmaceutical Market Trends 2010, p. 1). Strategy: The pharmaceutical companies traditionally adopt four major marketing strategies for promoting their products: Giving drugs as free samples to doctors/ Gifts that hold the company logo or details of one or multiple drugs, providing details of their products through journal articles or opinion leaders; and Sponsoring continuing medical education (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). Pharmaceutical representatives, also popularly known as medical representatives, are the major pharma marketing strategy for marketing drugs directly to the physicians. Typically, the expense of this sales force of any pharmaceutical company comprises anything ranging from 15-20% of annual product revenues (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). Ã¢â¬Å"Marketing Nutrition offers a Ã¢â¬Ëwin-winÃ¢â¬â¢ proposition for all concerned. Insightful companies, health professionals, and policy makers can lead the way . . . in helping people eat better and enjoy food more. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬âDr. James O. Hill, Director of Human Nutrition, University of Colorado Medical School (Wansink, 2007, p. ). Take advantage of future growth opportunities. These growth opportunities will be realized from unmet health-care needs and changing consumer life style trends and values (Grauer, 1981, p. 1). Dispensing and drug-knowledge-distribution pharmaceutical services are reviewed by a product life cycle analysis of sales profits versus time (Grauer, 1981, p. 1). A marketing mix for new pharmaceutical services is developed consisting of service, price, distribution, and promotion strategies. Marketing can encompass those key elements necessary to meet the organizational goals of pharmacy and provide a systematic, disciplined approach for presenting a new service to consumers (Grauer, 1981, p. 1). The costs of pharmaceutical marketing are substantial, but they are typical of high-technology industries that must communicate important and complex information to sophisticated users. These costs are offset by savings resulting from proper use of medicines and from lower drug costs owing to price competition (Levy, 1994, p. 1). oint to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and find comfort in the fact that this agency is tasked with regulating drug advertising. Ã¢â¬Å"onlyÃ¢â¬ 8% of advertisements are in violation of regulations. at least one of the 11 advertisements in the April issue of the ARCHIVES is likely to be misleading and, thus, provide potentially harmful information. In fact, the FDA, according to David A. Kessler, MD, commissioner, spends most of its time deve loping the package insert and not, as asserted by Levy, preapproving advertising. According to Kessler, Ã¢â¬Å"Except under very special circumstances, the agency does not eview or approve advertising and promotional materials before their dissemination by a drug firmÃ¢â¬ Furthermore, Kessler states that an Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ enormous potential exists for misleading adverÃ ¬ tisements to reach the physician and influence prescribing decisions. Ã¢â¬ (Shaughnessy, Slawson, ; Bennett, 1994, p. 1). Gifts: Giving drugs as free samples to doctors/ Gifts that hold the company logo or details of one or multiple drugs, A study was done in 1995 to gauge the outcome of a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of pharmacy marketing regarding physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s accepting gifts from the pharmaceutical industry. The objective of this study was to Ã¢â¬Å"examine patient perceptions of professional appropriateness and the potential impact on health care of physician acceptance of gifts from the pharmaceutical industry,Ã¢â¬ via a random telephone suvey of 649 adjults living in the state of Kentucky. Through the random sampling, the outcome of the survey was that Patient awareness of officeuse gifts (eg, pens, notepads) and personal gifts to physicians from the pharmaceutical industry, patient exposure to office-use gifts, and attitudes toward physician acceptance of both office-use and personal gifts. Mainous, Hueston, ; Rich, 1995, p. 1). Eightytwo percent of the respondents were aware that physicians received office-use gifts, while 32% were aware that physicians received personal gifts. Seventy-five percent reported receiving free samples of medication from their physicians. Compared with office-use gifts, more respondents believed that personal gifts to physicians have a negative effect on both health care cost (42% vs 26%) and quality (23% vs 13%). After controlling for demographic variables, as well as awareness and exposure to physician gifts, individuals with at least a high school education were 2. times as likely to believe that personal gifts have a negative effect on the cost of health care and 2. 3 times as likely to believe that personal gifts would have a negative effect on the quality of health care. (Mainous, Hueston, ; Rich, 1995, p. 1). Conclusions These results suggest that the public is generally uninformed about personal gifts from pharmaceutical companies to physicians. If public perception regarding the objectivity of the medical profession is to serve as a guide, these findings suggest a reevaluation may be in order for guidelines regarding physician acceptance of gifts from the harmaceutical industry (Mainous, Hueston, ; Rich, 1995, p. 1). The World Health Organization, the American Medical Association, the American College of Physicians, and the Pharmaceuticals ManufacturersÃ¢â¬â¢ Association have also published guidelines on perks to physicians from the drug industry. The bottom line is that all these guidelines are voluntary, and physicians have continued to vote Ã¢â¬Å"with their feet. Ã¢â¬ (Shaughnessy, Slawson, Bennett, 1994, p. 1). controversial 1962 FDA amendments. Just before 1962, congress studied and concluded that because of patent protection, heavy promotion by the drug companies, consumer ignorance, and minimal incentives for physicians to be concerned with cost, drugs of dubious quality and unnecessarily high expense were being prescribed by physicians, criticisms that sound remarkably familiar even today. Up to that point, the FDA had only required Ã¢â¬Å"proof of safety,Ã¢â¬ which dated back to the origins of the modern drug era and the 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (Shaughnessy, Slawson, Bennett, 1994, p. 1). Discussions about the influence of pharmaceutical promotion on physicians often focus on gifts and payments of relatively large economic value. This focus is also evident in ethics guidelines addressing pharmaceutical promotion among many professional medical societies. 1 The underlying assumption is that smaller gifts are unlikely to exert influence on prescribing decisions. (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, Kahn, 2009, p. 1). In contrast, a substantial body of marketing and psychology literature suggests that even trivial items can exert influence irrespective of economic value. For example, adding a small gift such as personalized mailing labels to a solicitation for donations has been shown to significantly increase contributions. 2 In pharmaceutical promotion, small gifts are often tethered to branding efforts, as items such as pens and coffee mugs display logos. Aside from the intrinsic value of promotional items, branded materials strengthen brand awareness and build brand equity through a variety of largely unconscious but powerful mechanisms. 3 Nonverbal information about the brand, such as symbols or logos, is often more influential than verbal cues. Stronger brands have a memory encoding and storage advantage over unknown brands,5 which facilitates the formation of strong positive associations with the brand. Strong branded products are more often in a Ã¢â¬Å"top-of-mindÃ¢â¬ set of alternatives for consumers to consider. 6 Strong brand awareness provides a justifiable reason for choosing a particular brand. 7-8 This research suggests that small b randed promotional items should increase favorable attitudes for the brand being promoted. We are unaware of studies that test these effects in a clinical context with health professionals, but many physicians, because they are medical experts, believe they are not susceptible to these influences. 5, 9-10 In one survey, just 8% of physicians believed they were susceptible to influence by marketing items such as branded pens, whereas 31% of patients felt these items could influence physicians. 9 The guidelines of the American Medical Association regarding gifts to physicians from industry reflect this belief of lack of susceptibility by permitting Ã¢â¬Å"gifts of minimal value. Ã¢â¬Å"1 (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, Kahn, 2009, p. ). The study used a randomized experimental design. Participants were third- and fourth-year medical students at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (Penn) and the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine (Miami). We selected these institutions because of their differing policies regarding interactions between trainees and pharmace utical company representatives. The University of Pennsylvania has restrictive policies in place that prohibit most gifts, meals, and samples while Miami continues to permit such marketing practices. (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, Kahn, 2009, p. 1). 007-2008. Study participants were assigned to a control or primed condition based on their day of enrollment. Participants assigned to the Ã¢â¬Å"primedÃ¢â¬ condition were exposed to Lipitor (atorvastatin) branded promotional items immediately prior to completing a computer-based study instrument. These exposures included Lipitor logos on a clipboard (used when signing in to the study room) and notepaper (used to provide participants with their study identification number). Participants assigned to the control condition completed the same procedures but with a plain (nonbranded) clipboard and notepaper. Randomization was conducted by day in order to avoid contamination of conditions. (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, Kahn, 2009, p. 1). Participants were told they were enrolling in a study about clinical decision making under varying conditions (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, Kahn, 2009, p. 1). Our study was designed to measure the influence of exposure to branded promotional items on relative attitudes toward 2 lipid-lowering statins. We examined differences in attitudes toward Lipitor and Zocor (simvastatin) in our exposed (Lipitor promotional items) and control groups. Lipitor is among the most promoted brand-name statins in the United States while simvastatin is available generically and considered to be nearly equally effective. The study outcomes included measures of implicit and self-reported (ie, explicit) attitudes. (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, Kahn, 2009, p. 1). Implicit attitudes were evaluated with the Implicit Association Test,11-15 a widely used tool in marketing and psychology research that is thought to be resistant to social desirability bias among research participants. Initial applications of the IAT, for example, demonstrated the persistence of racial and gender stereotypes and prejudices, even in the face of strong conscious beliefs that such attitudes do not exist and strong social norms that dictate they should not exist. 16-17 Results from the IAT are a better predictor of intergroup discrimination (eg, biased behavior against people of other races/ethnicities, gender, and sexual orientation based on existing attitudes and stereotypes) compared with ostensibly similar self-report measures. 13 In recent years, the use of the IAT has been expanded to research focused on branding and marketing. 8-19 Further details regarding application and validity of the IAT have been published elsewhere13-15; a demonstration can be found at the Project Implicit Web site (https://implicit. harvard. edu/implicit). (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, Kahn, 2009, p. 1). Explicit attitudes were assessed by self-report. Following the IAT, participants were asked to compare L ipitor and Zocor in 5 dimensions (superiority, preference, efficacy, safety, and convenience) a follow-up anonymous Internet-based survey that assessed their attitudes toward pharmaceutical marketing. The purpose was to measure differences in attitudes among students at the 2 schools given the differing institutional policies as a possible explanatory factor(Grande, Frosch, Perkins, Kahn, 200 Then there is the pharmaceutical industryÃ¢â¬â¢s holy grail of marketing Ã¢â¬â the relationship between their sales representatives and medical doctors. To maintain this relationship, often called Ã¢â¬Å"detailing,Ã¢â¬ pharmaceutical companies spend a whopping $8,290 per doctor. The average family doctor receives 28 visits each week from drug reps, who provide free samples, explain new findings from company-sponsored drug trials, and demonstrate the latest innovation in their companyÃ¢â¬â¢s medical devices. Some doctors, reporters and public health advocates have long decried the pharmaceutical industryÃ¢â¬â¢s seemingly endless attempts to buy goodwill among medical professionals. But insidious marketing campaigns seeking to rebrand medical conditions as lifestyle choices, and the patients who suffer from them as consumers, have received little scrutiny. (Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). 9, p. ). providing details of their products through journal articles or opinion leaders; Worse, the trend is seriously undermining the regulatory authority of the FDA. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not surprising that profit-driven, cutting-edge marketing techniques have outstripped the government agency established to guide them. What is surprising is that public health advocates havenÃ¢â¬â¢t ma de pharmaceutical rebranding and off-label promotions of drugs and medical devices major issues. In December, the advocacy group Consumers Union sent a letter (PDF) to the FDA requesting tighter DTC advertising regulations on medical devices. Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). The December 2007 issues of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s fashion magazines Allure and HarperÃ¢â¬â¢s Bazaar both featured multi-page spreads on non-surgical cosmetic procedures, including the array of injectable wrinkle fillers. The articles outlined the pros and cons of each filler, evaluating injection pain, cost per injection (most run between $500 and $800 per shot), and how long each lasts (Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). Dermatologist and anti-aging cream entrepreneur Dr. Patricia Wexler is featured prominently in the Bazaar story. Her remarks about each injectable reflect the marketing language of the brands themselves. When she is discussing SculptraÃ ®, for instance, she describes how the product acts as Ã¢â¬Å"a trellis on which the collagen can growÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â a line marketers use to describe how the device works. She also repeatedly suggests what are off-label, unregulated product applications, such as using injectable fillers in the eye area, in the temples, in the jawline, on the cheekbones, and in the fine lines surrounding the mouth. Dr. WexlerÃ¢â¬â¢s injectable filler romotions are especially credible among the target audience. Wexler regularly discusses non-invasive, anti-aging procedures on the Ã¢â¬Å"Oprah Winfrey Show,Ã¢â¬ the Ã¢â¬Å"Today Show,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Good Morning America,Ã¢â¬ and in the pages of Vogue and Marie Claire. The big pharma companies that make the injectable fillers likely dream of doctors touting their products and suggesting off-label uses for them in popula r womenÃ¢â¬â¢s magazines. As the saying goes, they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t buy such good press Ã¢â¬â but they probably did. (Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). Dr. David J. Triggle, a pharmacologist at the State University of New York at Buffalo who has written about drug advertising, says a doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s endorsement should be scrupulously honest (Saul, 2008, p. 2). Dr. Robert Jarvik, known for the artificial heart he pioneered more than a quarter-century ago. began appearing in television ads two years ago for the Pfizer cholesterol drug Lipitor (Saul, 2008, p. 1). Skip to next paragraph The ads have depicted him, among other outdoorsy pursuits, rowing a one-man racing shell swiftly across a mountain lake. When diet and exercise arenÃ¢â¬â¢t enough, adding Lipitor significantly lowers cholesterol,Ã¢â¬ Dr. Jarvik says in the ad. Celebrity advertising endorsements are nothing new, of course. But the Lipitor campaign is a rare instance of a well-known doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s endorsing a drug in advertising Ã¢â¬â and it has helped rekindle a smoldering debate over whether it is appropriate to aim ads for prescription drugs directly at consumers. A Congres sional committee, concerned that the Lipitor ads could be misleading, has said it wants to interview Dr. Jarvik about his role as the drugÃ¢â¬â¢s pitchman. Some of the questions may involve his credentials. Even though Dr. Jarvik holds a medical degree, for example, he is not a cardiologist and is not licensed to practice medicine. So what, critics ask, qualifies him to recommend Lipitor on television Ã¢â¬â even if, as he says in some of the ads, he takes the drug himself? (Saul, 2008, p. 1). Skip to next paragraphThe House Committee on Energy and Commerce is looking into when and why Dr. Jarvik began taking Lipitor and whether the advertisements give the public a false impression, according to John D. Dingell, the Michigan Democrat who is the committeeÃ¢â¬â¢s chairman. Ã¢â¬Å"It seems that PfizerÃ¢â¬â¢s No. 1 priority is to sell lots of Lipitor, by whatever means necessary, including misleading the American people,Ã¢â¬ Mr. Dingell said. Lipitor, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s single best-selling drug, is PfizerÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest product, generating sales of $12. 7 billion last year. But as it has come under competition from cheaper generic alternatives, Pfizer has used the Jarvik campaign, introduced in early 2006, to help protect its Lipitor franchise. Wherever the Congressional inquiry leads, the controversy risks damaging Dr. JarvikÃ¢â¬â¢s credibility and undermining his real medical mission. The Jarvik campaign was rolled out the same year that Zocor, LipitorÃ¢â¬â¢s chief competitor, became available as a generic drug that is widely considered about as effective as Lipitor but is sold at a fraction of the cost. (Saul, 2008, p. 1). Skip to next paragraph Criticism of consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals flared as an issue back in 2004, when Merck withdrew Vioxx, a heavily advertised painkiller, after a clinical trial showed that it sharply increased the risk of heart attacks and strokes. The pharmaceutical industry adopted voluntary guidelines the next year suggesting that companies delay advertising new products for an unspecified period after they first reach the market (Saul, 2008, p. 1). In early January, the U. S. House Committee on Energy and Commerce began investigating celebrity endorsements in television ads for brand-name drugs. These direct-to-consumer (DTC) ads have been controversial since the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) loosened the rules governing pharmaceutical marketing in 1997. Before Lipitor made headlines, there was Viagra. PfizerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Viva Viagra! Ã¢â¬ campaign was criticized by the FDA and organizations including the AIDS Healthcare Foundation, who said the DTC ads encouraged recreational use of the erectile dysfunction drug. One print ad suggested that Viagra be used to Ã¢â¬Å"celebrateÃ¢â¬ events such as the Super Bowl or New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s Eve. (Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). While troubling, DTC ads represent only 14 percent of pharmaceutical companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ marketing budgets. By the time a 30-second drug commercial airs, the company has conducted months of segmentation studies, held dozens of meetings to define the Ã¢â¬Å"communication targetÃ¢â¬ (typically a woman, usually a mother, and of a certain income), and spent millions of dollars to develop the drugÃ¢â¬â¢s brand and its market. This strategic marketing, which represents the remaining 86 percent of drug promotion expenses, should receive at least as much attention from regulators and lawmakers as DTC ads. (Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). While DTC ads seek to change patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior, pharmaceutical companies are more interested in changing doctorsÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior. Drug marketers work hard to persuade doctors to prescribe their branded drug over generics and other competitors, and to change other medical practices that limit company profits. To cultivate medical professionals, drug companies may retain a doctor as a spokesperson, position friendly medical Ã¢â¬Å"thought-leadersÃ¢â¬ in the media, or organize free events at posh resorts and expensive hotels to Ã¢â¬Å"educateÃ¢â¬ doctors about a new disease state (think Restless Leg Syndrome) or their latest drug. In 2000, the biggest 10 pharmaceutical companies spent $1. 9 billion on promotional events alone (Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). For example, the FDA found that Eli LillyÃ¢â¬â¢s television broadcast advertisement for Strattera (atomoxetine) was false or misleading because it inadequately communicated the indication for the drug (attention-deficitÃ¢â¬âhyperactivity disorder) by means of competing visuals, graphics, and music presented concurrently. Similarly, serious risk disclosures were minimized for Strattera, the FDA said, by the distracting visuals and graphics (e. . , erratic camera movement, quick scene changes, and visual changes in point of view). In another case, the FDA said PfizerÃ¢â¬â¢s print advertisement for Zoloft (sertraline) was false or misleading because it omitted important information relating to the risk of suicidality in patients, a risk stated on the productÃ¢â¬â¢s label at the time the advertisement ran. (Donohue, Cevasco, Rosenthal, 2007, p. 1). Drugs that are advertised to consumers are predominantly new drugs used to treat chronic conditions. Ten of the top 20 drugs, as ranked by advertising spending, were introduced in 2000 or later. Advertising campaigns generally begin within a year after the introduction of a pharmaceutical product, which raises questions about the extent to which advertising increases the use of drugs with unknown safety profiles. At least one pharmaceutical manufacturer (Bristol-Myers Squibb) recently announced a voluntary moratorium on direct-to-consumer advertising for drugs in the first year after FDA approval. And PhRMA, the industry trade group, has recommended that manufacturers delay such campaigns for new drugs until after health professionals have been sufficiently educated, although no details have been provided on how long a period was deemed necessary. 20 Finally, in a recent study of drug safety, the Institute of Medicine recommended that the FDA restrict advertising for newer prescription drugs. 8 Our data show that a mandatory waiting period on advertising for new drugs would represent a dramatic departure from current industry practices. For example, the FDA found that Eli LillyÃ¢â¬â¢s television broadcast advertisement for Strattera (atomoxetine) was false or misleading because it inadequately communicated the indication for the drug (attention-deficitÃ¢â¬âhyperactivity disorder) by means of competing visuals, graphics, and music presented concurrently. Similarly, serious risk disclosures were minimized for Strattera, the FDA said, by the distracting visuals and graphics (e. g. , erratic camera movement, quick scene changes, and visual changes in point of view). In another case, the FDA said PfizerÃ¢â¬â¢s print advertisement for Zoloft (sertraline) was false or misleading because it omitted important information relating to the risk of suicidality in patients, a risk stated on the productÃ¢â¬â¢s label at the time the advertisement ran. (Donohue, Cevasco, ; Rosenthal, 2007, p. 1). direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs on television. Such advertising has been criticized for encouraging inappropriate use of medications and driving up drug spending. ,2 Concern that such advertising may lead to increased use of expensive medications was amplified by the introduction of a prescription-drug benefit in Medicare in 2006 (Part D). Studies of the effect of advertising on prescribing practices have shown that such advertising increases classwide sales, helps to avert underuse of medicines to treat chronic conditions, and leads to some overuse of prescription drugs. (Donohue, Cevasco, ; Rosenthal, 2007, p. 1). Direct-to-consumer advert ising has also been controversial in light of postmarketing revelations regarding problems with drug safety. Specifically, clinical trials that are required for drug approval are typically not designed to detect rare but significant adverse effects, and contemporary methods of postmarketing surveillance often fail to connect adverse events that have a high rate of background prevalence with the use of particular drugs. After the market withdrawal of Vioxx (rofecoxib), a drug heavily promoted to consumers,6 critics called for the FDA to place limits on direct-to-consumer advertising, particularly for new drugs,7 a view that was reiterated in a recent report by the Institute of Medicine on the safety of medicines. (Donohue, Cevasco, ; Rosenthal, 2007, p. 1). Sponsoring continuing medical education describes the influence of sponsoring on the results, protocol and quality of drugs studies (Deutsches Aerzteblatt International, 2010, p. 1). The authors conclude that pharmaceutical companies exploit a wide variety of possibilities of manipulating study results. Apart from financing the study, fin ancial links to the authors, such as payments for lectures, may tend to make the results of the study more favourable for the company. Not only the results themselves, but also their interpretation, are significantly more often in accordance with the wishes of the sponsor. (Deutsches Aerzteblatt International, 2010, p. 1). In some publications, the authors detected evidence that sponsors from the pharmaceutical industry had influenced study protocols. For example, placebos were more frequently used in drug studies than was the case with independently financed studies. On the other hand, some favourable effects were linked to financial support from the pharmaceutical industry. The methodological quality of studies with industrial support tended to be better than with independent drug studies(Deutsches Aerzteblatt International, 2010, p. 1). Most physicians must complete accredited continuing medical education (CME) programs to maintain their medical licenses, hospital privileges, and specialty board certifications. Data from the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) show that CME is a $2 billion per year business in the United States that earns less than half its revenue from physician learners themselves. CME is increasingly underwritten by commercial sponsors Ã¢â¬â primarily manufacturers of drugs, biologic therapies, or medical devices Ã¢â¬â that spend more than $1 billion per year in educational grants and other funding to cover more than half the costs for CME activities (Morris ; Taitsman, 2009, p. 1). In recent years, a number of studies have shown that clinical drug trials financed by pharmaceutical companies yield fa vorable results for company products more often than independent trials do. Moreover, pharmaceutical companies have been found to influence drug trials in various ways. Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Published drug trials that were financed by pharmaceutical companies, or whose authors declared a financial conflict of interest, were found to yield favorable results for the drug manufacturer more frequently than independently financed trials whose authors had no such conflicts. The results were also interpreted favorably more often than in independently financed trials. Furthermore, there was evidence that pharmaceutical companies influenced study protocols in a way that was favorable to themselves. The methodological quality of trials financed by pharmaceutical companies was not found to be any worse than that of trials financed in other ways. Conclusion: Published drug trials that are financed by pharmaceutical companies may present a distorted picture. This cannot be explained by any difference in methodological quality between such trials and trials financed in other ways. (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Clinical drug trials funded by pharmaceutical companies yield favorable results for the sponsorÃ¢â¬â¢s products more often than independent trials do. This has been demonstrated by a number of studies in recent years Various ways have been described in which pharmaceutical concerns exert influence on the protocol and conduct of drug trials, as well as on the interpretation and publication of their results. This systematic review showed widespread conflicts of interest in the shape of financial connections between scientists, academic institutions, and the pharmaceutical industry. Around one quarter of academic staff and two thirds of academic institutions had financial relationships with industry. Analysis of 8 review articles embracing a total of 1140 original articles (including randomized controlled trials [RCT], economic analyses, and retrospective cohort studies) revealed a statistically significant association between funding by biomedical companies and conclusions favorable to the pharmaceutical industry (summarized odds ratio [OR] 3. 6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2. 6Ã¢â¬â4. 9). Industry financing was also connected with limitations of publication rights and constraints on access to trial data. Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). In the second review, a systematic analysis of 30 publications, Lexchin et al. showed that drug trials financed by pharmaceutical companies are less likely to be published, but that those published more frequently yield positive results for the sponsorsÃ¢â¬â¢ products than do independently funded studies (8). The quality of the methods employed (analyzed in 13 publications) in trials financed by pharmaceut ical companies was not inferior to that in studies with other sources of funding. Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). The authors of the present systematic review set out to assess whether recently published studies reveal a connection between financing of drug trials by pharmaceutical companies and results favorable to these companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ products. Part 1 investigates whether and, if so, how the type of funding affects study protocol and quality. Part 2 identifies and depicts the aspects of clinical drug trials that can be influenced by financial support from the pharmaceutical industry. Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). The publications included were primarily studies performed with the expressed goal of comparing clinical trials funded by pharmaceutical companies with clinical trials that had not received financial support from such companies, e. g. , with regard to the results or conclusions. These studies were accompanied by a number of publications that investigated the consequences of financing of a study by pharmaceutical companies. These included, for example, articles in which information from the files of the US licensing authority (Food and Drug Administration, FDA) was compared with data from publications in medical journals, and case studies on individual substances. (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Connection between type of funding and results of drug trials Twenty-six of the 57 publications analyzed sought to ascertain whether the results and/or conclusions of drug trials depended on the type of funding or on financial conflicts of interest on the part of the authors (eTable). Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Altogether, 23 of these 26 studies came to the conclusion that there was a positive correlation between the financing of a study by pharmaceutical companies and/or conflicts of interest on the part of the authors and results or conclusions that were favorable to the sponsor. The statistical significance of this finding was investi gated in 22 cases and confirmed in 20. (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. ). In 4 cases it was apparent that the findings were interpreted favorably towards the pharmaceutical concern that had funded the study, independent of the results (e5Ã¢â¬âe8). (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Another study investigated the connection between the conclusions and the source of financial support in clinical trials that had appeared in 5 influential medical journals over a period of 20 years (e10). Most trials yielded positive results for the drug in question regardless of the funding source, but this study also revealed a trend over the course of time towards more positive findings in industrially financed trials than in trials supported by non-profit organizations (e10). The third study compared the results (but not the interpretations or conclusions) of clinical trials of drugs used in pain management, some of them long available as generics (e9). (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. ). Five of the 57 studies analyzed investigated whether funding by pharmaceutical companies affected the design of the study protocol (Table 1 gif ppt). The use of placebos was shown to be significantly more common in RCTs of drugs for psoriasis that were financed by such companies than in those with funding from other sources (e12). Moreover, several studies of treatment for premature ejaculation that were sponsored by a pharmaceutical company were found to have disre garded the relevant objective endpoint (e13). In an investigation of inhaled corticosteroids, significant differences in the frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADR) between the probands and the control group occurred only half as often when the study had been funded by the manufacturers (see also Part 2). The differences could be attributed wholly to the study design. For example, studies financed by pharmaceutical companies used lower dosages. (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). The pharmaceutical company concerned investigated the marketing effect of the study, finding that participating physicians did indeed prescribe rofecoxib significantly more often than non-participants in its first 6 months on the market. (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). The results of clinical drug trials that are funded by pharmaceutical companies or whose authors have financial conflicts of interest are favorable to the products of the sponsoring company far more frequently than studies whose funding comes from other sources. Furthermore, interpretation of the data in the conclusions of industrially financed trials more often favors the sponsor. This was shown by the present systematic review and analysis of investigations, published between 1 November 2002 and 16 December 2009, into various diseases, study types (e. g. , RCTs and observational studies), and drugs. The results confirm the conclusions of 2 systematic reviews, both published in 2003, conducted with similar intent (7, 8). The principle of equipoise, i. e. , uncertainty which of the alternative approaches benefits the patient most, forms the ethical foundation of clinical studies in which the probands receive various treatments (14). This principle seems to be violated in many studies funded by pharmaceutical companies. (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). There are numerous reasons why studies financed by pharmaceutical manufacturers more often yield positive results. Four investigations found evidence that pharmaceutical companies influence the study protocol to their advantage (e12Ã¢â¬âe14, e19), e. g. , by more frequent use of placebos in control groups than in independently funded studies (e12). Although the responsible authorities sometimes demand placebo-controlled trials as a condition of licensing, they also request active controls (15). Further factors leading to higher frequency of results favorable to the sponsor in trials funded by pharmaceutical companies are described in Part 2 of this review. Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Trials financed by pharmaceutical concerns displayed no signs of poorer methodological quality. On the contrary, two studies showed superior quality (e16, e17). It must be taken into account, however, that some factors that serve to assess the quality of the instruments used in a study were not determined, among them the clinical relevance of the target parameters. In oncolog y, for instance, there are currently major defects in the protocols of industrially sponsored clinical trials, e. . , deficiencies in the definition of patient-relevant endpoints and in the selection of suitable substances for the control arm of RCTs (16Ã¢â¬â19). Moreover, clinical trials in oncology are often discontinued after preliminary analysis (20), with the result that only a short time after the licensing of a drug its additional benefits and the safety of new substances can frequently no longer be evaluated, preventing any benefit/risk analysis (21). (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Conclusion: Wansink argues that the true challenge in marketing nutrition lies in leveraging new tools of consumer psychology (which he specifically demonstrates) and by applying lessons from other productsÃ¢â¬â¢ failures and successes. The same tools and insights that have helped make less nutritious products popular also offer the best opportunity to reintroduce a nutritious lifestyle. The key problem with marketing nutrition remains, after all, marketing. (Wansink, 2007, p. 1). New services must therefore be oriented toward consumers (i. e. , patients, health professionals, and third-party agencies) to gain acceptance (Grauer, 1981, p. ). We encourage family physicians interested in providing the best care for their patients to become educated in the advertising techniques used by the pharmaceutical industry. (Shaughnessy, Slawson, Bennett, 1994, p. 1). | | | | | | | | | | | new challenges as well as opportunities for increasing profitability. If the pharmaceutical companies want to improv e their Return-On-Investment (ROI), they have to adopt new communication technologies (digital media) along with their conventional sales force of medical representatives. They really need to adopt this multi channel marketing strategies for the following reasons: The concept of blockbuster drugs is dying out for big pharmaceutical companies where 2-3 drugs were good enough to pay back the whole investment for a larger number of manufactured drugs. Now the limited prospective for blockbuster drugs (thanks to low investment on RD and patent expiry) makes it essential to focus on more specialized drugs sold in lower volumes. And when there is low volume products, sales driven marketing strategy (with high cost of sales force) is not feasible. As far as small pharma companies are concerned, they already have small sales force. However, with the use of digital media, having a lower investment cost (both for the company and its targeted customer) they can easily get return on investment. Customer behavior (doctors behavior) is rapidly changing. Doctors, who are getting more and more busy with increasing patients, can be hardly seen by the medical representatives. They are more inclined towards Internet for obtaining relevant information. It is the time for pharmaceutical companies to build their marketing strategies around this digital media. Website marketing, online marketing, blogs, social media, forums, chat rooms and any other such media is an influential means to present the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products and offers through opinion leaders (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). The right marketing strategy for any pharmaceutical company would be to build on proven strategic marketing principles, along with a focus on changing customer behavior. Use of digital media through Internet marketing plan is the best marketing strategy that can provide the basis for a changed business model. However, there should be some planning for using digital media for marketing too. It should be a multi channel marketing strategy but should identify the target audience. Every digital media used for all people can not be called the right marketing strategy. The focus should be on the high value customer segment for pharmaceutical products (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). How to cite Pharmaceutical Marketing, Papers
Monday, May 4, 2020
This includes the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (EPBC Act), conservation of private land, and so on. 1. Introduction Biodiversity provides lots of natural resources and services for everyone such as ecosystem services, biological services and social services. From the needs of the poor to even the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s economy depends mostly on things derived from biological resources. Medical discoveries, economic development, and adaptive responses to the challenges faced due to dramatic climate change benefit with rich biological resources, as high cost is incurred if we need to replace them. However, biodiversity is threatened by different aspects, which in terms affecting the whole ecosystem as well as our economy. Biological conservations should take place in order to conserve biodiversity. 2. Biodiversity in Australia 2. 1 Definition Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth, the biological diversity is also called biodiversity. Biodiversity involves the amount of living organisms, such as plants, animals, and microorganisms, the genes that each species contain, and the ecosystems the organisms depend on, such as woodlands, coral reefs, and deserts. Australia Museum, 2009) Biodiversity acts as an indicator of the health of ecosystems. The greater it is the healthier the ecosystems are. Biodiversity also affected the climate. In terrestrial habitats, more species are found in tropical regions whereas less species are found in polar regions. Out of 13. 6 million species of plants, animals and micro-organisms on earth, Australia occupies approximately a million of them which are more than 7% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s total. As one of the twelve megadiverse countries, Australia contains about 75% of EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s total biodiversity. Australia is a developed country, she has the responsibility in managing and conserving biodiversity. 3. 2 Importance of Biodiversity Humans benefit from biodiversity in 3 different ways: ecosystem services, biological resources and social benefits. 3. 3. 1 Ecosystem services Biodiversity plays an important role in nutrient storage and recycling. At the same time biodiversity is breaking down and absorbing the pollution caused by human activities. As pollution are mostly broken down and absorbed, the climate is stay more or less stabilized through the contribution of biodiversity. Biodiversity can help in maintaining the ecosystems that are damaged by human activities. 3. 3. 2 Biological resources Biodiversity provides lots of raw material and biological resources for humans, e. g. food, wood products, as medicinal resources and pharmaceutical drugs. Biodiversity even acts as our future resources. 2. 2. 3 Social benefits Biodiversity benefits us socially. It acts as a subject for us to do research, education and monitoring. Biodiversity can also a site of recreation and tourist attraction for us to enjoy and relax. It also has significant cultural values. (Anup S, 2009) 2. 3 Threats Over the last 200 years Australia has suffered the largest documented decline in biodiversity of any continent. No matter how hard they try to manage threats and pressures to biodiversity, the biodiversity in Australia is still declining. 2. 3. 1 Environmental changes Firstly, over the past thousands of years, indigenous people have been interacting with AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s environment causing influence over the course of evolution. Vegetation patterns are affected by their use of fire for land managing. Hunting and the building of fish traps have had affect the natural environment where speciesÃ¢â¬â¢ population levels may have decreased or even become extinct. (Australian Museum, 2009) Secondly, over the past 200 years, Australia suffered from a tremendous loss of biodiversity and rate increase of environmental change due to the arrival of Europeans. New species and human technology were brought into Australia by the European settlement. Hence, the ecosystem was disturbed and threatened. (Virginia G, 2002) 2. 3. 2 Over-population Population growth is increasing gradually, demand of space and resources, disposal of goods increase simultaneously. Through agriculture, urbanization, industrialization and the exploitation of natural resources, we are in terms disturbing and destructing the habitats. If we over-use these resources, population size of certain species may be reduced due to rate of consumption is much fast than rate of production. As population growth, more energy are consumed, therefore more oil, coal or fossil fuels have to be burnt. Through the burning process, carbon-dioxide is produced, which is the main factor of global warming and can change the nature of ecosystems. Also, for the introduction of exotic species will bring diseases with them and will have competition with native biodiversity for food and shelter. (Australian Museum, 2009) 2. 3. 3 Climate Change Climate changes around the globe and also in Australia. Average temperature is rising and natural disasters like droughts, high fire danger weather are expected to occur more frequently. Climate change will affect the sea temperature and sea level and also leading to the melting of polar ice. Biodiversity is very sensitive to climate change. As the environment changes, some species like the migrating birds, will be lost and cannot find their direction which may up set the speciesÃ¢â¬â¢ distribution. (Department of the Environment, 2003) 2. 4 Impact 2. 4. 1 Extinction Where a life form has evolved extinction is also involved. Approximately 30 billion species have lived, but only about 0. 01% of them live on Earth today. We human are not the ones who have actually caused most mass extinctions. Scientists said that we are going to witness the sixth mass extinction. Where mass extinctions occurred in the pass had been recorded in the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s history, e. g. extinction of dinosaurs. Loss of species is a major threat to biodiversity in Australia. Species of animals and plants under threat may be listed in one of the following categories (Australian Museum, 2009): * Extinct * Extinct in the wild * Critically endangered * Endangered * Vulnerable * Conservation dependent 2. 5 Biodiversity Conservation National framework for biodiversity conservation The Australian Government knows the importance of biodiversity conservation and, in cooperating with the states and territories through the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council, is setting a national framework for biodiversity conservation. (NRMMC, 2010) Australian environment legislation EPBC Act The Australian Government is responsible for biodiversity conservation through the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) the Australian Governments key piece of environmental legislation. Through it, a legal framework to protect and manage biodiversity nationally and internationally is provided. Department of Environment, 2010) Caring for our Country Farmers, native peoples, and other private land managers manage around 77 per cent of Australias land. To protect AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s environmental assets, the Australian Government acknowledges the conservation of biodiversity on private lands. The Australian Government invested more than $2 billi on in 2008-2013 in Caring for our Country initiative which supports communities, farmers and other land holders to protect Australias natural environment and provide food and fibre sustainably. The Environmental Stewardship Program of Caring for our Country aims at maintaining and improving the quality and extent of highly-valued environmental assets on private land. A significant factor of the Caring for Our Country initiative is the National Reserve System. This is a nation-wide network of reserves which is set up for the protection of Australias unique natural environment for our offspring (Department of Environment, 2010) Conservation on private land The Australian Government realizes conservation of biodiversity on private land is a significant way to conserve Australias biodiversity. Governments encourage private land holders to conserve biodiversity by providing them with incentives. (Department of Environment, 2010) Australian Government Incentives * There are agreements which are used to protect and conserve the biodiversity in land or sea between the Australian Government Environment Minister and other parties, who known as EPBC Act Conservation Agreements. The Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts has responsibility for a number of administrative arrangements relating to taxation concessions that seek to conserve and protect the natural environment. In order to conserve and protect the natural environment, a number of administrative arrangements which relate to taxation concessions are responded by the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. * Tender based approaches and auctions are to provide conservation payment to community groups and individuals for conservation works of biodiversity. * The National Reserve Sys tem is Australias network of protected areas. Funding can be applied for organizations to buy land for conservation or to work with landholders, to help them set up a continuous conservation agreement on their private land. Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council, 2010) 3. Conclusion Biodiversity, or biological diversity, is the variety of all species on earth. It is the different plants, animals and micro-organisms, their genes, and the terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems of which they are a part. (Department of the Environment, 2010) Biodiversity provides us with many goods and services. However, in the past 200 years Australia has suffered with the most significant drop in biodiversity. http://australianmuseum. net. au/What-is-biodiversity https://australianmuseum.net.au/biodiversity http://www.environment.gov.au/ https://www.helium.com/ http://www.australia.gov.au/information-and-services/environment
Saturday, March 28, 2020
Chain Gangs And Convict Labor chain gangs and convict labor The Truth About Chain Gangs and Convict Labor Jeremy A. Greenfield English 101 Iowa Western Community College 11/16/98 Outline Thesis: From the early chain gangs to the prison industries of today, prisoners have been used as labor in the United States. I. Definition A. Definition of convict labor B. Definition of chain gangs and prison industries II. Chain Gangs A. Early history B. Mid-history C. Decline D. Present E. Curtis Brown III. Convict Labor A. Statistics B. Reasons for C. Reasons against D. Other benefits E. Types of jobs IV. Main Points Restated A. Best arguments for convict labor B. Best arguments against convict labor page 2 page 3 Prisons have been used as the way of punishment in the United States since its beginning. Throughout the history of prisons, convicts have been used as labor. The methods of labor, the number of laborers, and the arguments for or against has constantly been changing. From the early chain gangs to the prison industr ies of today, prisoners have been used as labor in the United States. When people think of chain gangs, they usually think of people in white and black stripes, being forced to work in a harsh environment. This was often true. Employees, also called leasees, were in charge of the inmates. They often treated the inmates brutally. The name chain gang probably comes from the fact that the inmates were chained together at the legs to reduce the chance of escape. (Reynolds 181) Inmates were often controlled by whips and other harsh disciplines and punishments. People argued that the treatment was just because of the increased chance of escape in chain gangs. (Reynolds 182) People also thought that the chain gangs would deter crime, but studies show that they failed to deter. (Brownstein 179) The living conditions were often unsanitary, crowded, and poorly constructed. (Reynolds 182) These bad conditions of the past have given the chain gang an extremely bad rap. The way people view chain gangs has changed several times throughout their history in the United States. The earliest history of chain gangs holds the cause for the bad views of them. The public sees chain gangs as a racist part of the old South. The first chain gangs began in England and the northern part of the United States during the eighteenth century. (Reynolds 180) Even though chain gangs were legal in almost every state, the South seemed to be the only region using them. Some reasons for this include the bad climate of the North and the publics thoughts against chain gangs. (Reynolds 183) Another reason why we see the South as the source of chain gangs is because it was the region that needed them the most. The South used chain gangs because after the Civil War there was a labor shortage. The labor shortage and an escalation in crime caused the South to begin leasing out convict labor. (Reynolds 180) It did not take long for convict leasing to spread. After the Civil War the South had to rebuild. Th at is why most of the states in the South had convict labor by 1875. The most common workers of the chain gang were county inmates who worked on the roads. A large amount of repairs was needed to mend the roads that were destroyed during the war. Many convicts were also leased out to farms in the South to replace the slaves who were freed because of the Civil War. (Reynolds 180) The South was still a farming region with many large plantations that needed workers. Southerners were accustomed to having cheap labor so convict labor was thought as a good solution. There seemed to be no concern for welfare of the convicts or the jobs of others. Nobody cared that chain gangs were humiliating and degrading to inmates, which was against the eighth amendment, preventing cruel and unusual punishment. (Brownstein 179) Early chain gangs were used only for economic gain. Convicts made money page 4 which helped to support themselves and were used as cheap labor. Rehabilitation was not a concern b ack then. (Reynolds 181) Some people did worry about the bad treatment of
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Subcultural theories Essays Subcultural theories Paper Subcultural theories Paper Subcultural theories of youth civilization owe much to the pioneering work of the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies ( CCCS ) during the 1970s and early 1980s. The CCCS make usage of the term subculture from US sociologists at Chicago University, and applied it to visually typical post-World War II British working category young person civilizations, such as teddy male childs, mods, and bootboyss. Sociologists today employ three primary theoretical positions: the functionalist position, the Marxist position and the post-modernist position. These positions offer sociologists theoretical paradigms for explicating how society influences people, and frailty versa. Each position unambiguously conceptualises society, societal forces, and human behavior. Functionalism Functionalism is the oldest, and still the dominant, theoretical position in sociology and many other societal scientific disciplines. Harmonizing to the functionalist position each facet of society is mutualist and contributes to society s operation as a whole. Functionalists see society as holding a construction, with cardinal establishments executing critical maps, and roles directing people in how to act. They identify the maps of each portion of the construction. For illustration, the province, or the authorities, provides instruction for the kids of the household, which in bend wages revenue enhancements on which the province depends to maintain itself running. This means that the household is dependent upon the school to assist kids turn up to hold good occupations so that they can raise and back up their ain households. In the procedure, the kids become observant, taxpaying citizens, who in bend support the province. If the procedure succeeds the parts of society green goods order, stableness and productiveness. On the other manus, if the procedure does non travel good, the parts of society so must accommodate to recapture a new order, stableness, and productiveness. For illustration, as we are soon sing, during a fiscal recession with its high rates of unemployment and rising prices, net income and salary decrease, societal plans are trimmed or cut. Families tighten their budgets while employers offer fewer concern plans, and a new societal order, stableness and productiveness occur. Functionalists believe that society is held together by societal consensus, or coherence, in which society members agree upon, and work together to accomplish, what is best for society as a whole. Emile Durkheim suggested that societal consensus takes one of two signifiers: Mechanical Solidarity: This is a signifier of societal coherence that arises when people in a society maintain similar values and beliefs and prosecute in similar types of work. Mechanical solidarity most commonly occurs in traditional, simple societies such as those in which everyone herds cowss or farms. Amish society exemplifies mechanical solidarity. Organic Solidarity: This is a signifier of societal coherence that arises when people in a society are mutualist, but hold to changing values and beliefs and engage in changing types of work. Organic solidarity most commonly occurs in industrialized, complex societies such as those in big American metropoliss like New York in the 2000s. He decided that crime and deviance were the proof that the individual did not fit into societys accepted goals and did not agree with the socially approved means of obtaining those goals. He identified this as strain between the individual and society, and discovered that the greater the strain, the greater the chance of the individual being either deviant or criminal in their behaviour. Merton argued that all societies, whether in Britain or in the jungles of Africa, set their members certain goals and provided them with socially approved ways to achieve this goal. Merton considered the fact that not all the individuals in a society share the same goals; he pointed out that in a stratified society the goals were linked to a persons position in the social structure. Therefore, those lower down the social ladder, had restricted goals. He noted that the system worked well as long as the majority of the population had a reasonable chance of achieving their goals. However, if the majority of the population were unable to achieve their goals, they would become disenchanted with society, and sought out alternative, often deviant, ways of behaving. Merton used Durkheims term anomie to describe this situation. One example of Mertons theory in practice in todays society, is the notion of The American Dream. The American Dream, is a notion held by many that through hard work and material prosperity, residents of the United States will be able to achieve their goals in life; for some this is the ability to achieve more material prosperity than would be possible in their country of origin; the chance for their children to get an education; or the freedom of life without class, gender, racial or religious discriminations. However, for many, this dream is just that, an unachievable dream, and when they realise this, many turn to illegitimate means of money making to help them survive in the materialistic society that is America. Merton identified five different forms of behaviour which could be understood as a strain between goals and means. The first is conformity, in which the individual continues to adhere to both the goals and means, despite the limited likelihood of success, such as the many office workers in New York City, who are living on the poverty line. Another form identified by Merton is Innovation, where the individual accepts the goals of society, but uses different ways to achieve these goals, so the outcome may result in the person being involved in deviant activity, such as soft drug dealers, who long for the materialistic possessions, yet instead of working legitimately, they get their money through deviant behaviour. The third form is Ritualism, this is when the means are used by the individual, but sight of the actual goal is lost, for example a traffic warden, who is not bothered about earning lots of money, but blindly enforces the law without looking at the nature of justice. Ritualism, is the fourth form, in which the individual rejects both the goals and means and society, this is most likely to be a person who is dependant upon drugs and alcohol. The final form of strain can be labelled as Rebellion, where both the socially sanctioned goals and means are rejected and different ones substituted; these individuals are often religious extremists, such as Suicide Bombers. Although Mertons idea of strain has concrete examples in society, many sociologists have criticised his approach to subcultural crime and deviance as being too simple. They say that there are some people who border on the lines between categories. Also, some believe it is too ethnocentric. Valier (2001), criticised Merton for his stress on the existence of common goals in society. Valier argues that instead of such great social consensus, there are in fact a variety of goals that people strive to attain at any one time. Having been heavily influenced by Mertons work Cloward and Ohlin (1960) carried out their own research, entitled the Illegitimate Opportunity Structure. They argued that Merton had failed to appreciate that there was a parallel opportunity structure to the legal one; the Illegitimate Opportunity Structure. This, to them, meant that many subcultures prevalent in society, had found that a career was available, in which illegal means were used to obtain societys goals. According to Cloward and Ohlin, the Illegitimate Opportunity Structure had three possible adaptations or subcultures. The first of these was Criminal, which states that if there is a thriving local criminal subculture, there will be successful role models in that area, therefore young offenders can work their way up the ladder in the criminal hierarchy. Conflict was identified as the second subculture, and it was noted that this occurred when there was no local criminal subculture to provide career opportunities. Groups and individuals brought up in this environment often turn to violence, usually against other similar groups, for example gang turf wars, where gangs use violence to determine who owns which patch. The final adaption is known as Retreatist, and this tends to be an individual response which occurs when the individual has no exposure or opportunity to be involved with the other two subcultures of Criminal and Conflict. The result therefore, is a retreat into alcoholism or drug dependency. A good example of Cloward and Ohlins theories into these subcultures is Dick Hobbs book Bad Buisness (1998), in which Hobbs interviewed successful criminals and demonstrated how careers in crime are possible, given the right connection and exposure to this subculture. This explanation of criminal deviance is useful and, alongside Hobbs work, shows that for some people crime can be a career choice. But the approach is not completely correct, it shares similar weaknesses to Mertons Strain Theory. One criticism which is shared with Merton, is the categorisation of individuals; there are many people who may be sat on the border of two categories, and also, it is difficult to except the three categories, as there is no reference to people who break free from this subculture. Furthermore, many argue that both theories fail to recognise female deviance, as this often follows a slightly different pattern and is not as easy to define. Albert Cohen (1955) drew upon both Mertons ideas of strain and also on the ethnographic ideas (form of observational research) of the Chicago School of Sociology. He was particularly interested in why crime was carried out, and he discovered it was more for the thrill of the act, rather than for the money involved. Many modern day sociologists believe this is as true today as it was in the 1950s, for example, joyriding has increased, yet the cars are burnt, not sold on, so there is not an economic reasoning behind the crime, it must just be committed for the thrill. Cohen believed that lower-class boys wanted to excel middle-class values and aspirations, but lacked the means to obtain this success. This lead to a sense of personal failure and inadequacy, which Cohen called status frustration. This resulted in the rejection of the acceptable behaviour in which they could not succeed. He suggests that school therefore, is the key area for the playing out of this drama, as lower-class children are much more likely to fail and feel humiliated in the classroom. To counteract this and gain status, they invert traditional values and behave badly, engaging in a variety of antisocial behaviour. They may often resort to being the class-clown, who fools around and disrupts the lesson, as they feel this is the way to climb up the social ladder. However, many have criticised Cohen, least of all Feminist Sociologists. As with Cloward and Ohlin and Merton, there is no discussion of female deviancy, his study is solely based on males. Also, Cohen failed to prove that school really was the environment in which success and failure are demonstrated mainly. But the major criticism of his work is that he assumes the young delinquents must be brilliant sociologists to work out that they are lower-class, to work out the middle-class values and then invert them to gain status. Many believe Cohen is correct, he has just missed the fundamental point that these individuals are children. Another subcultural sociologist was writing in the 1950s, Walter Miller. He developed an approach to crime, which expanded on Cohens class based theory. Miller suggested the deviancy was linked to the culture of the lower-class males; suggesting that they have six focal concerns which are likely to lead them to delinquency. The first was smartness; that the individual must look good and also be witty with a sharp repartee. Also, the concern of trouble; the culture of I dont go looking for trouble it finds me, its never their fault, they didnt start it. Focal concern number three links to Cohen and his discovery that crime was committed for the thrill, yet Miller says that lower-class males feel it is important to search out these thrills and so calls this concern excitement. Toughness is the fourth concern, the individuals must not only demonstrate this, but they must be physically stronger than the others. The fifth concern is Autonomy, it is important for the individual not to be pushed around by the others in the gang. And the final focal concern outlined by Miller is Fate; individuals have little chance to overcome the fate that awaits them, the fate of a deviant career for example. Therefore, according to Miller, young lower-class males become delinquents due to the implicit values of their subculture. Yet, Miller provides little evidence of these specific middle class values. Box (1981) highlights that the values could equally apply to males right across the class structure. Also, female deviancy is not considered again! One consistent criticism of subcultural theories is that there is little evidence to demonstrate this distinct set of antisocial values. Even if there are subcultures, why would they respond to certain middle or working class values? Matza bonded these criticisms together to attack subcultural theory. He argued that instead of subcultures having different values, we all share a set of subterranean (hidden) values. The key thing is that most people control these deviant desires, they may rarely emerge, say at the office party, yet when they do we use techniques of neutralisation to provide justification for our deviant actions. Some examples include the denial of responsibility- it wasnt me, it was the alcohol; or denial of injury- victim wasnt hurt, often used when justifying stealing from a company rather than individual. Matza is therefore arguing that the difference between a persistent offender and a law-abiding citizen is simply the frequency and environment in which our subterranean values appear to the public. Matzas critique of subculture is deemed by many as devastating. He is saying that all of us share deviant subcultural values and that it is not true that there are distinctive groups with their own values, different from the rest of us. Carl Nightingale took yet another approach towards deviance, and his subcultural theory does not focus on crime, but that black youth are marginalised, often driving them towards deviance; the Paradox of Inclusion. For his book On The Edge(1993), Nightingale studied young Black youth in inner-city Philadelphia. He discovered that subculture derives from the desire to be part of mainstream US culture, that is to say that subcultures occur due to the rejection and marginalising of youth by society. In America, Black children avidly consume US culture by watching television with its emphasis on consumerism and the success of violence, yet at the same time they are excluded economically, racially and politically from participating in the mainstream society they idolise. This is seen in England through the Chav culture. Those individuals dress how they see on television in music videos, so they can fit in, yet by doing so, they ironically become individuals which society fears, and therefore marginalises. These individuals begin to identify themselves through acquiring clothing with high-status labels, such as Nike or Adidas. Once again, drawing upon Mertons ideas, the subculture reflects the belief that it is not so much how these high status goods are obtained rather the fact of possessing them, which is often through crime and violence. This links with Phillip Bourgois study of El Barrio. He looks at the lives of drug dealers and criminals in the deprived areas of New York. He wanted to study the underground econmy, everything ranging from babysitting to hard drug dealing, in this marginalised society. He realised they were marginalised for many reasons, particularly racial and due to their high poverty lifestyles, society excluded them. He discovered that the severe abuse of drugs and alcohol prevalent in El Barrio, was due to the marginalisation and alienation from mainstream American Society, which many residents encountered daily. The change of drugs and scale which Bougois monitored was widespread and dramatic, with everyone in the society involved. However, although they did not share the same means as mainstream America, they shared the same goals, as in to achieve the American Dream. Bourgois noted that the legitimate economy mirrors the illegitimate economy, there is a hierarchal system in place, which all obey, just like legitimately. He decided that the pressure of the American Dream is what caused many to deviate into criminal activity, as this way they could obtain the needed money to pursue their dream. His main finding was that crime makes economic sense, why would these people surviving on the bread line want to work in an office, earning the minimum wage, when they can earn ten times as much on their own doorstep? And this attitude is shared all over the world by many living in poverty. Since 1998, there has been the introduction of ASBOs; Anti-Social Behaviour Orders, but there has been much dispute as to whether these actually prevent deviant behaviour. Many believe that by labelling delinquent youths as Anti-Social, they accept this label and it turns into a self-fulfilling prophecy, where the youngster feels they must live up to this reputation. Others believe that ASBOs are seen as labels to be had and are worthy of respect. Many of the approaches outlined above seek to explain deviant behaviour through rational reasoning as to why subcultures have developed. Some recent postmodern approaches reject this explanation for behaviour. Katz (1988), argues young men get drawn into crime, because it is seductive and thrilling, echoing Cohen. This is not dissimilar to Lyng (1990). He said that young males like taking risks and engaging in what he refers to as edgework; going to the extremities of acceptable behaviour and flirting with danger. Using the example of neo-tribes, Maffesoli (1996) introduced a postmodernist innovation in understanding subculture. He was unhappy with the idea that the idea of subculture had been transformed from a concept based on values, more into a concept of consensus. He believed subcultures should be though of in terms of fluidity, occasional gatherings and dispersal. Neo-tribes then referred to states of mind, that were flexible, open and changing. Deviant values are less important than a stress on consumption, suitably fashionable behaviour and individual identity that can change rapidly. As previously noted, subcultural theories are very masculine orientated. However, as Collison (1996) points out, sociologist may well have missed the significance of studying male behaviour in such detail. He said that in order to explain male offending behaviour, it is important to explain the nature of being male in our society and the links masculinity itself has to crime. Collinsons work on masculinity links closely to that of Connell (1995), who sees the existence of a hegemonic masculinity, in which males both conspire with and aspire to, and believes this drives them to deviance. This emphasis on hegemonic masculinity is very similar to Millers earlier works on lower-class values. However, Winlow argues these values are most obvious when the economic social structure is changing. He suggests that the traditional working class values fitted alongside physical work, which is now in decline, so they are restless and desperate to prove their masculinity. These values have dispersed due to the rise of office work. He further suggests that these problems greatly affect young males who are out of employment. So, to conclude, there are many different approaches to explaining subculture and its place in society, all of which are as valid today as they were when the original research was carried out, from studying the British Street Corner Groups in the early 1900s, to the participant observation of crack dealers in New York City, all of these theories are still relevant to the gang culture of today. However, looking at the theories, the one society can relate to most is Metza and Subterranean Values. This is very obviously prevalent in society today, from photocopying body parts at the office party and blaming it on the alcohol, to the men who get cleared of rape, claiming the victim isnt a victim as she was wearing clothes which led the man on. Whether subcultures do or do not share common social values will be disputed for many years, yet Mazas techniques of neutralization will be evident in society always, therefore, I believe I identify most with this theory, as it seeks to explain natural patterns of behaviour, not seek to infiltrate gang culture and lifestyles. Having said this, I am particularly interested in Bourgoiss El Barrio research as I agree with him and the dealers, crime makes economic sense, why work a nine-to-five for minimum wage, when you can earn enough money on your doorstep? Perhaps, if I had access to a criminal subculture, I would become involved as Cloward and Ohlin said, yet unfortunately my future is even bleaker according to them, a retreatist lifestyle involving drugs or alcohol, good job I believe Merton and feel I am a conformist, adhering to both the socially accepted goals and means.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Marketing Financial Services - Case Study Example Marketing is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"managing profitable customer relationships Ã¢â¬Å" (Kotler Armstrong 28). Marketing is a way of approaching business, not simply a function that deals with sales and promotional material. Most industry sectors adopted a marketing mindset in the middle of the last century, but for financial services, it was not until government regulations were relaxed that banks found they needed to use marketing to win new customers and retain existing ones. The market in financial services is dominated by several large organisations, some specialising in specific financial products, such as pensions and life assurance, while others provide a full range of products, being a Ã¢â¬Å"one-stop shopÃ¢â¬ for a customerÃ¢â¬â¢s financial needs. Financial services are broadly divided into retail and commercial activities. The retail area is further divided into personal and business, with products in each specifically for those customers. Many of the commercial activities are not marketed heavily as they are extremely specialised. They would fall within business-to-business marketing, as would marketing activities directed at business customers within the retail area. Banking is an unusual activity in that it requires customers to deposit the raw material required to do business Ã¢â¬â money. What the banks do is limited by how much they hold on behalf of customers (savings and credit balances), compared with the amount they make available to other customers (through lending) and the relative risk associated with the funds held. Legislation also requires that banks maintain a specific ratio of capital assets available at all times. Financial institutions have to manage risk associated with default Ã¢â¬â overdrafts or loans not being repaid. This is usually reflected in the price of the produce Ã¢â¬â the Ã¢â¬Å"marginÃ¢â¬ or interest rate charged. The higher the risk, the higher the rate charged. In some cases, banks will not permit overdrafts or provide